Translation and (Consecutive and Simultaneous) Interpretations Can Be the Basis of Communicative and Cross-cultural Conflation | April 2018 | Translation Journal

April 2018 Issue

Read, Comment and Enjoy!

Join Translation Journal

To receive regular updates,
fill in your details below.
You will also receive a PDF listing
8 Ways to Ignite your Translation Career.
Join now. 

Translation and (Consecutive and Simultaneous) Interpretations Can Be the Basis of Communicative and Cross-cultural Conflation

Abstract

 

This research attempts to identify the role of translation and interpretation in communication related to cross-cultural in which the stances of two different languages take place, to identify the cultural-conflation differences between the translator/interpreter and whom translation/interpretation is provided on one hand, and to find out whether the translator/interpreter’s work differs from the way it is given by different written and oral statements involved in the interaction on the other. This is done by comparing and contrasting data obtained from 150 interviewees who studied at Yarmouk University in 2016/2017 majored Translation within an overall fieldwork approach and through the analysis of our data in terms of information recorded on tapes as well. As a result, the role of translator/interpreter is inter-culturally communicative since language becomes more important in live discussions and talk shows seeking regional change through international interaction with speakers. Soon enough, in the nascent industry that is growing at an amazing pace, the style of house delivery style has begun to evolve through the process of refining development. This research showed emerging methods of providing translations and consecutive-simultaneous interpretations in English / Arabic language courses.

Keywords: Translation, Consecutive - Simultaneous Interpretation, Communication

 

     Introduction

 

                 Communication has always been a significant necessity for all communities. Since our ancestors rented caves, people were communicating in different ways. Neanderthal painted images on the walls of the caves, and American Indians continue using dormite and smoke. In wars, soldiers used doves to deliver higher secrets. Messages and telephone were the next step in communication. Finally, most of the communication processes take place in this century through the Internet. There are three main types of communication: verbal or dialogue, nonverbal, and visual. Dialogue or verbal communication is a conversation between two or more entities using speech devices to transmit a message contains two sub-categories: personal relations and speech. Nonverbal communication is the process of communication by sending and receiving messages without a word. Such messages can be sent by gestures, body language or posture, facial expressions, eye contact, object contacts such as clothing, hairstyles, or even architecture or symbols. Visual communication, as the name suggests, is communicating through visual means. It is the transmission of ideas and information in forms that can be read or viewed (http://en.wikipedia.org).

             Additionally, the translation/interpretation work is known in different ways by scientists but the common thing among scientists is the translation is the process of transferring, replacing and rewriting the source text in the target text which involves at least two different languages. Language is essentially the most important aspect of the translation process. Thus, translation plays a key role in the communications system.

             Translation/interpretation, however, is not just linguistic work; it is also cultural, an act of communication across cultures. Translation always involves both language and culture simply because two cannot be separated. Language is culturally inclusive: it expresses and constitutes cultural reality. The meaning of linguistic materials can be understood only when it is considered with the cultural context in which linguistic elements are used. Translators should pay close attention to the differences in the type and degree of contraction in the source and target cultures when text is transferred from one culture to another. One of the main characteristics of the translation is "dual-linking mode", where the translator has to link the source text in its cultural context to the communicative cultural purpose of the case (House, 2009).

             The interpretation task is to help them share each others’ cultures, experiences and traditions as well. But the problem rises here, which can be seen in his/her behavior, is interpreter does a one-time duty with no feasibility to return to the original nor can he/she make any corrections, that leaves a lower level of equivalence in target language. We can therefore adopt cross-cultural psychology measurement even though it is hard to do so, but at least have an idea about the cross-cultural attitudes may be appreciated by. Particularly scientific and social visits, diplomatic missions are culturally conflagrated nowadays.

           On the other hand, there is technology-assisted interpreting, as a new working method for conference interpreters contribute in solving the problem. If we try best to solve questions about giving clear definition to the notion of translation, finding out the differences between written and oral translation and explaining the types of the latter, it will be easy for cross-cultural psychology to model itself.

        Since interpreters deal with different cultures which make people who they are, as they use a language to bring people from different roots and from different entities together. The interpretation task is to help them share each others’ cultures, experiences and traditions as well. But the problem rises here, which can be seen in his/her behavior, is interpreter does a one-time duty with no feasibility to return to the original nor can he/she make any corrections, that leaves a lower level of equivalence in target language. The researcher can therefore adopt cross-cultural psychology measurement even though it is hard to do so, but at least have an idea about the cross-cultural attitudes may be appreciated by. Particularly scientific and social visits, diplomatic missions are culturally conflated nowadays.

           Moreover, there is technology-assisted interpreting, as a new working method for conference interpreters contributes in solving the problem. If the researcher tries his/her best to solve questions about giving clear definition to the notion of translation, finding out the differences between written and oral translation and explaining the types of the latter, it will be easy for cross-cultural psychology to model itself. One might construe an unbroken tradition from Lederer’s (1978:333) concern with “the connection between thinking and speaking (...) as it materializes with each segment of speech” (Lederer, 1978).

             Newmark (1988) defined culture as "the way of life and its manifestations in a society that uses a particular language as a means of expression." He clearly stated that he did not consider language as an element or characteristic of culture in direct opposition to Vermeer's view that language is part of a culture". Intercultural differences in community translation settings have been the subject of debate since the beginning of academic interest in this type of activity. The first Critical Liaison Conference in Toronto in 1995 devoted much of its time to opening discussions and sometimes heated debates about whether the role of the community interpreter included cultural mediation (Roberts, Dufour, & Steyn, 1997). 

             When people from different languages ​​communicate, they need a common language to understand each other. Translation is a reasonable way to communicate in these situations. The translation process is like a car that needs a good driver to control the wheel in the right direction. The translator who knows not only the two languages, but also the two cultures, i.e. not only bilingual, but also bi-cultural. Road signs are the translation strategies used in this process. Also, oil testing and freezing by the driver before driving is necessary, and analysis of cultural elements before translation is vital. Our focus here will be on the nonverbal communication area, which represents the traps of translators because they occur through wordless messages (Davaninezhad, 2009).

               Intercultural communication is often called intercultural communication because interaction occurs between people in different ways or situations. To understand one culture by another culture, there must be some common things. It is not possible to present each cultural item in another culture. Indians have a lot of cultural festivals compared to other cultures in Europe. Therefore, the relationship between translation and culture cannot be separated from the relationship between language and culture (Thiruvasagam, 2010).

               The process of intercultural communication is very complex 8 - some cultural elements exist in particular a culture that does not exist in another culture and therefore some cultural elements are not translatable. Immigrants belong to different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. They urgently need a common language to communicate, and the need arises for a common language - this need can be achieved through translation. Understanding other culture, each culture relates itself to another culture (Sawant, 2014).

 

1-    Literature Review

           Ideology was not an issue in the literature on interpreting until very recently. Indeed, when the subject of ideology emerged more broadly in translation studies in the late 1990s (e.g Calzada Pérez 2003), interpreting researchers had just taken the (social turn); that is, they began to move beyond the traditional concern with the psycholinguistic and cognitive processing skills of conference interpreters and included problems of cross-cultural interaction in their purview. The origins of the word "inter-pres", though not conclusively established, have been associated with "interpartes" or "interpretium" (Hermann 1956/2002). This relates to the human mediator positioned between two parties or values, and it seems easy to extend the latter term, i.e. ‘values’, to mean value systems, or belief systems. On this understanding, the interpreter mediates between sets and ideas and values, without being associated with them on either side.

               Hence the interpreter’s ‘inter-mediate’ position is linked up with another essential characteristic: the notion of impartiality, of having no part in the intentions or actions of either communicating party. Ancient Egyptian studies had indicated that interpreting was used at that time according to Kurz (1991) studies, there were also interests in this field related to the shapes of specialized interpreting . It was first used during the First War World where they were meetings between American and British negotiators who could not speak French. It was necessary to have interpreters (Herbert 1978). It is currently widely used not only at international meetings but it also on radios and televisions, in lectures and visits according to consecutive and simultaneous.

           All researchers have agreed that speech production and picture are parts of intellectual operation and it is little known about the similarities and differences between production the speech and its understanding in simultaneous interpreting, likewise other contexts according to supporters of the theory of meaning. Interpretation instructors have assured that there is mutual loss in simultaneous when the interpreter is isolated behind the microphone , they often start formulating their speech in the target text before having a complete picture about the idea they are going to express about.

Other researchers have assured to avoid structure of target language which they may be similar to the source language and to have understanding rather than knowledge Gile (1989). Whereas the intellectual activities in consecutive interpreting refer to writing notes which are to be chosen, they way to re-formulate in the target text. The researcher sees that simultaneous interpretation is the operation of transferring speakers’ ideas, happiness, and sadness expressed in the speakers’ feeling that can be mirrored in the interpreters’ voice too.

2-    Previous studies

               With regard to humor, what makes this kind of adaptation to the target work - cultural expectations is the small size of transport units. Since simultaneous interpreters are limited by the ability of short-term memory to transmit successive segments, for example, a paragraph, large explanatory units such as anecdotes or examples cannot be adapted or converted as a whole, even if they have little or no feeling at all in the target text. A typical example of this type of situation occurs in the second family business workshop, when Froholich, an Austrian, speaks and apparently follows in English-language proceedings, comments on the way Americans pronounce the Austrian-born economic name "Schumpeter" (Pöchhacker, 1995).

             Accordingly, the interpretation of the conference as a cognitive management problem, Gile (1997) argues against his 1995 model of effort. This model is based on the idea that interpretation is a process consisting of three major "efforts": (a) listening and analysis effort, (b) production effort, and (c) memory effort. Gile does illustrate that at any one point in the interpretation process; these three core efforts are simultaneously active, processing various sectors of the language speech source. When interpreting a speech consisting of a succession of parts, treatment may occur in succession and in three simultaneous movements: forward (production), backward (memory), and forward (listening).

           People have systems of specific cultural meaning that are shared by individuals within culture. These cultural systems of meaning are interpretative frameworks that influence the influence of individuals' perception and behavior (Hong et al., 2000). Bicultural cultures - those who assimilate two separate cultural frameworks (e.g. Hong et al., 2000) - can shift between these frameworks in response to cultural evidence such as speech.

                 However, the practical implications of translation practice are much easier in terms of governance and documentation. Translation is not just a literal reworking of the work from one language to another; it is also adapting to one culture values and aligning to another (L, 2002). In a consecutively position, the interpreter is closer to the participants. As conference participants and interpreters receive direct contact from one another, it may be easier for them to establish contact, which may make it easier for the translator to intervene and become more active in the interaction. The translator, in direct contact with participants and speakers, is more apparent in between in a sequential interpretation. While in a simultaneous mode, the interpreter sits in a booth with a clear view of the meeting room and the speaker listens to and at the same time interprets the speech to the target language. Immediate interpretation requires a booth (fixed or mobile) that meets the ESO standards for acoustic insulation, dimensions, air quality and accessibility, as well as appropriate equipment (headphones and microphones) (Gercek, 2007).

               Huiping's study (2008) was conducted to encourage a more open discussion on data translation. This paper aims to provide a critical and reflexive assessment of the problems and issues faced by the author with respect to the translation of qualitative data. The results indicated that researchers and translators must identify linguistic and cultural differences that must be negotiated by data translation. It is said here that researchers and translators should maintain and highlight cultural differences rather than similar to the prevailing values ​​of target culture through translation. The compiler is an integral part of the knowledge production system. The role of the translator as an intercultural communication medium and a data interpreter must be recognized in the research process.

           Dozens of thousands of years related to development later, and through which language has been central to human development, we have reached the age of globalization. Although there are currently a few boundaries that are not compromised by the great Internet, e-mail, communication, language may still be an important barrier in communication and translation is still necessary for successful communication. We have to accept that the old world has gone. Cultural - ethnic - regional identity and globalization are front, and there are political, economic, social and linguistic implications. Translating plays an undeniable role in the formation of national cultures and identities, a means that can make our collective identity and the knowledge of our culture more familiar with the sharing and learning of other cultures; cultures and texts become available and available to the international public in their own language (MUÑOZ-CALVO & Buesa-Gómez, 2010).

           Glodjović (2010) conducted a study to analyze potential problems in the translation of literary texts based on examples taken from the Serbian translation of a contemporary novel. The results indicated problems based on a critical language approach to the mistakes of concrete translators and reports on the challenges of some lexical issues in the translation process.

          Still, there is a little bit of guidance in codes of ethics or other guidelines for interpreters on how to deal with these differences between cultures. For example, provides that it is up to the presiding President to ask the applicant for any possible misunderstanding between cultures. However, there may be cases in which the interpreter is only aware of these differences because the interpreter is the only one who is bilingual and culturally. The applicant, who is not familiar with the culture of the host country, may not request any answer unless the member asks specific questions about specific behaviors (The Australian Refugee Review Tribunal/Migration Review Tribunal's interpreter handbook (Migration/Refugee Review Tribunal, 2011).

             In some cases, the "differences between cultures" are blurred in all communication problems among speakers in different languages, including those resulting from poor communication skills from either of the two axes, through inefficient interpreter or immoral behavior, through and The ability of service providers to use an interpreter or their misunderstanding of the interpreter's role ( Felberg and Skaaden (2012).

             It is, of necessity, certain examples of these general characteristics can include general trends, such as how to express patience, what is appropriate to say when and to whom, how to rotate in conversation, and how to accept courtesies or courtesy, to name a few. As individuals and members of different groups. So we have our own individual traits but we also share qualities with the members of the various groups to which we belong. Sometimes it is difficult, especially interpreters, to separate the two, or to identify the attribute that belongs to that category. However, the more knowledge we share with our interlocutors, the more seamless the communication will flow, whether the conversation is monolingual or bilingual (Hale, 2014).

             As a result, there is little evidence of how culture affects people's communication behaviors. There is less evidence of the process of how culture affects the behavior of individuals who suffer from cultural culture. This is surprising given the ever-increasing phenomenon that has become a growing number of bi-cultural people as a result of globalization ( Yu, 2014).

               Ultimately, this research draws attention to their portability across problematic cultures, but it is negligible to remember whether a single-language version or a translation into the mother tongue of the employee is used, making the language irrelevant. A position is rejected by empirical work on a diverse understanding of values ​​placed in English as a common language or on a negative impact translation when staff members themselves do not recognize the staff depicted. Based on the translation (from English to French) of a specific code of conduct incorporated into the local culture. The study showed an emphasis in the codes of conduct of local companies, as well as in the literature on the target country, and also highlighted that the transfer of basic concepts of corporate law brings different ways to put into practice (Tréguer-Felten, 2017).

3-    Statement of the Problem:

             The researcher is going to discuss and give his opinion for the readers abouthow consecutive and simultaneous interpretations can be the basis of communicative and cross-cultural conflation, defines who involves in this kind of work, where it takes place, what differences in between the two most well-known kinds of interpretations to problematic questions answered later on by providing clear vision about communication within interpretation and adapting various solutions.

4-    Significance of the Study:

4-1 To develop a national cross-cultural framework of standards for this service.

4-2            To deal with this issue and other barriers to equal access.

4-3            To find out which sort of interpretation is more accurate.

4-4            To find out which sort is more in demand in jobs.

5-    Discussion

               In a consecutively position, the interpreter is closer to the participants. As conference participants and interpreters receive direct contact from one another, it may be easier for them to establish contact, which may make it easier for the translator to intervene and become more active in the interaction. The translator, in direct contact with participants and speakers, is more apparent in between in a sequential interpretation. While in a simultaneous mode, the interpreter sits in a booth with a clear view of the meeting room and the speaker listens to and at the same time interprets the speech to the target language. Immediate interpretation requires a booth (fixed or mobile) that meets the ESO standards for acoustic insulation, dimensions, air quality and accessibility, as well as appropriate equipment (headphones and microphones) (Gercek, 2007).

However, the practical implications of translation practice are much easier in terms of governance and documentation. Translation is not just a literal reworking of the work from one language to another; it is also adapting to one culture values and aligning to another (L, 2002). There is a little bit of guidance in codes of ethics or other guidelines for interpreters on how to deal with these differences between cultures. For example, provides that it is up to the presiding President to ask the applicant for any possible misunderstanding between cultures. However, there may be cases in which the interpreter is only aware of these differences because the interpreter is the only one who is bilingual and culturally. The applicant, who is not familiar with the culture of the host country, may not request any answer unless the member asks specific questions about specific behaviors (The Australian Refugee Review Tribunal/Migration Review Tribunal's interpreter handbook (Migration/Refugee Review Tribunal, 2011).

               In some cases, the "differences between cultures" are blurred in all communication problems among speakers in different languages, including those resulting from poor communication skills from either of the two axes, through inefficient interpreter or immoral behavior, through and The ability of service providers to use an interpreter or their misunderstanding of the interpreter's role ( Felberg and Skaaden (2012).

Examples of these general characteristics can include general trends, such as how to express patience, what is appropriate to say when and to whom, how to rotate in conversation, and how to accept courtesies or courtesy, to name a few. As individuals and members of different groups. So we have our own individual traits but we also share qualities with the members of the various groups to which we belong. Sometimes it is difficult, especially interpreters, to separate the two, or to identify the attribute that belongs to that category. However, the more knowledge we share with our interlocutors, the more seamless the communication will flow, whether the conversation is monolingual or bilingual (Hale, 2014).

             As a result, there is little evidence of how culture affects people's communication behaviors. There is less evidence of the process of how culture affects the behavior of individuals who suffer from cultural culture. This is surprising given the ever-increasing phenomenon that has become a growing number of bi-cultural people as a result of globalization ( Yu, 2014).

             This research draws attention to their portability across problematic cultures, but it is negligible to remember whether a single-language version or a translation into the mother tongue of the employee is used, making the language irrelevant. A position is rejected by empirical work on a diverse understanding of values ​​placed in English as a common language or on a negative impact translation when staff members themselves do not recognize the staff depicted. Based on the translation (from English to French) of a specific code of conduct incorporated into the local culture. The study showed an emphasis in the codes of conduct of local companies, as well as in the literature on the target country, and also highlighted that the transfer of basic concepts of corporate law brings different ways to put into practice (Tréguer-Felten, 2017).

          For Arab satellite television stations, which aspire to portray themselves as typical holders of Western-style democratization, political and cultural change, and the involvement of the "other" in the debate, simultaneous translation has become routine of live news programs and news broadcasts. It is a recent phenomenon that has rapidly gained prominence. At the same time, it is highlighted the major shortcomings in performance and operation with regard to efficiency standards for interpreters recruited for this critical task and inconsistent broadcasting policies for synchronized television (Darwish, 2006).

               In turn, the politicization of the translator/interpreter and translation/interpretation as a social practice is important for both theory and practice in interpretation. Therefore, further ethnographic studies are needed that examine the relationship between partial and total contexts in which translation activities are conducted. In line with this need, and since there are no social- sociological studies of sequential interpretation in Turkey, a country undergoing a major adjustment process on the western threshold, the field of research has been chosen as conferences within international projects with simultaneous translation between Arabic and English. These projects are usually financed locally and internationally, and the international community is international institutions such as the European Union and the United Nations.

             Several meetings, conferences, training courses and seminars are held on various topics within these projects through cooperation between the public sector and / or the private sector and international organizations. This creates a range of job opportunities for conference interpreters in Jordan - the Davos Forum, and makes their role crucial. Therefore, this research attempts to explore the role of the interpreter in relation to context, expectations and cultural differences in the above-mentioned situations in order to shed light on these issues within the wider social and cultural context of Jordan.

               The predisposition is to breach the constraint rather than satisfy it, and to produce literal translations that primarily harm the integrity of the information in terms of what is being transferred to the other language and how it is perceived by the target language.

6-    Characteristics of Interpretation:

6-1 Being good speaker and developing his/her character through loudspeaker or headphones.

6-2 Quick decision-maker.

Stages of interpretation in meetings according to Gile: 1994 Daniel Gile is, by the way, conference interpreter and professor at University Lyon, he is the founder and the main node of the IRN (International Research Network) which was set up in 1990:

6-2-1 Early writings: Herbert 1952 in Geneva, Russles 1962 of personal initiatives, the first Master thesis was done by Eva Paneth in London in 1957.

6-2-2 Empirical stage: Gerver has studied the linguist and psychological traits for interpreters, the effect of the voice, source language, speed of performance, the term of time in which reformulating the speech in target language, nose and the pauses during speeches, they therefore refused such theories.

6-2-3 Practicing stage: the first doctoral paper was done by Kurz (IngardPinter) in 1969 in Vienna and at that time ESIT (Ecole Superieurd’Interpretes et Traducteur) has adopted a theory of Theorie du Sens, which says that translation and interpretation are based on the meaning of the context.

6-2-4 Renewing stag: It has begun in the middle of 1980s till today, it was indicate to in Trieste, Italy in 1986, then a new challenge appeared by Moser-Mercer in 1991. Then studies have kept going in Paris, later in Turku, Finland in 1994. Two main themes concerning the problem facing service providers and some of the solutions emerge from the literature:

A- The knowledge base of service providers is important to enable them to identify and understand the needs of groups they serve, but it is limited due to the absence of accurate national and local statistics and by fragmentation of responsibilities for translation and interpretation within and across organizations as well.

B- Consistency in provision across different regions, compromised by difference in the importance attached to translation and interpretation issues in different regions, partly on the basis of the perceived and partly on grounds of costs, resources, training and experience.

Table (1), indicates to the extent of front-line staff and specialists who are trained to communicate with users.

Level of Interpreting

             Description

Bilingual aid formerly level І

For public contact personnel who use another language while performing their primary duties.

Paraprofessional interpreting formerly П

For individuals in whose mainstream role interpreting forms small part of other duties.

Interpreter formerly level Ш

The basic professional level, for full interpreter in community ,law, education ,etc.

Advanced interpreter formerly level IV

Simultaneous conference interpreter.

Senior interpreter formerly level V

Senior conference interpreter.

 

There are two contrasting arguments emerge from literature concerning the role of interpreter. On the one hand, there is a powerful rush towards the professionalism of the interpreters and translators. This would enhance the quality of the interpretation and translation and would also ensure that the structure, training and qualifications were appropriate to the demands of the task. On the other hand, are these who argue that the neutral professional is not always the most appropriate role for interpreter or translator; on occasion, familiarity with the professional field, culture sensitivity and empathy with those for whom interpretation and translation is provided is more significant. Example of literature in legal interpreting is concerned a French woman appearing as a witness in a court case in England, she was asked if she had a criminal record, the woman replied she had, correctly as every French citizen, for legal purpose ,has a criminal record.

        However, this reply was likely to have influenced the jury in appropriately. It is noted in the literature that mistakes of this kind tend to be attributed to the shortcomings of individual interpreters, rather than seen as indicating a wider need for cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity in courtroom(Fiola 2000).This means translator and interpreter have to have more than simple an excellent command of both languages. They need to be sensitive to social and cultural differences between those who speak each language, both at macro level (i.e. the entire particular community of speakers of the language in question) at micro level (i.e. the particular community and in some cases, the individuals with that community) for whom the interpretation or translation is provided.

Table (2) shows how levels of translation work.

Source text

يا ما تحت السواهي دواهي

Transliteration

Yama tahat al sawahi dawahi.

Verbatim Translation

Whatever is beneath [genitive] plots [unmarked] [implied copula] [zero article] dilemma.

Literal translation

What is under plots are dilemmas

Primary level

Dilemmas   are always under plots

Operative level

Still waters run deep.

Interpretive level

What seems to be joke or trick, will lead to troubles.

               While the Arabic sentence that was issued as a link sentence in English at the primary level makes sense to the Arabic translator because it reflects Arab construction and because of access to the source text, it compels the English speakers to present the sentence to more cognition, processing and analysis to reach the intended meaning. Initial deliveries only occur in the absence of any restrictions on the meaning of the source in the translation. Otherwise, the interpreter (or interpreter) attempts to meet the restriction by moving to the operative level, and if the translation still does not reflect the meaning of the source, the shift to the interpretative level is necessary. In the example above, the operative, delivery-oriented delivery is sufficient to convey the intentions of the source message. One more example is David is owl; it sounds that David is a pessimistic person and spoils happy moments in Arabic culture. Unlike the western culture which has its own symbolic interpretation for such a bird- that is, David is wise.

             There was also evidence that members of the same group were relying on a set of assumptions about what the caller said. This indicates that members of the same community of speech sometimes explain the meaning of the caller in different ways. Moreover, there have been patterns that individual's bicultural cultures flexibly offer to transform systems of cultural meaning according to contextual (speech) cues. For example, in concluding the problem the caller intends to resolve about the parents' consent to the relationship in which their daughter was, a member of the Finnish group seems to have shifted his knowledge of Arabic culture and knowledge about Finnish culture, in contrast to the caller's experience with his own life. "If in this country once you leave the girl home, she will not really care what the family thinks so much." This shows that he seems to have access to both knowledge of cultural meaning systems, and use them flexibly to interpret a given speech. This is evidenced by the fact that bicultural individuals are very sensitive to their cultural norms, beliefs and deep-rooted values ​​that inform them of how to behave in a given situation.

             Therefore, by relying on the theory of relevance, it is possible to show that differences between interpretations of speech can be attributed to the current assumptions people hold, and that culture has an impact on interpretation if heard with diverse cultural backgrounds based on different contextual assumptions in speech response. The result is that in intercultural encounters, the difference in contextual assumptions that people rely on from different cultures is likely to lead to differences in communication.

             Since the transfer of culture translation, unconsciously behind this culture, we are familiar with Pop cultures and people's customs from different regions. For example, "Mother's Day" as a pop culture shows that people respect mothers. So this special day has become a habit of all countries in different geographical areas. Daily habits such as the use of the Internet are becoming very common globally, using this is almost inevitable for all (Abbasi et al, 2012).

7-    Terminology of the research:

 

7-1            Translation: it is the conversion of written texts from one language (SL) to another (TL).

7-2            Interpretation: is a tool to get two or more different cultures closer to each other, working as a bridge between two people speak different languages.

7-3            Consecutive: the interpreter transfers the speakers’ speech, ideas, gestures the tone and facial expressions in one language into another.

7-4            Simultaneous: the interpreter sits in booth, having headphones set and renders the speakers’ speech by microphone immediately into another language.

7-5            Birds’-eye perspective: it is when the interpreter hovers above cultural towards a view of interpretation for the sake of culture, ethics and responsibilities.

8-    Data Collection:

 

The researcher has gathered the information in this research from different resources. Not only from being stated on Internet sites, books or in scientific writings, but also from the researchers’ experience in this field among diverse multi-cultural teams, daily self-exposing to various moments and symposia as well as from the participants in the sample..

   8-1 Data Analysis and How the Researcher Gets the Problem:

The researcher doubts about the advantages and disadvantages, similarities and differences between translation and consecutive and simultaneous interpreting, as well as the significance of cross-cultural communication between interpreter and those whom interpretation is provided. This is the heart of problem analysis. First, symptoms must be distinguished from causes. For instance, does a headache cause physical problem? Or does it indicate to a symptom of a more serious illness? Having a headache three days a week, but not all the week, may give a clue to its cause! What is wanted is a cause that will adequately account for symptoms experienced. It would not be wise to ignore anything noticed, we are all advised to listen carefully and analyze any situation for ourselves before gaining approval solutions, researchers would then be wise to ensure they are going to work and that they are the most appropriate. Researchers need brainstorming and literal thinking. Interpreters are usually more creative than they give themselves credited for, which by those approaches ability can be developed.Here the researcher demonstratesthe two most well-known interpretations in details:

 

8-1-1    Consecutive:

       Where the interpreters in the same room as the speaker and follows their speech while taking notes before presenting their interpretation. Very long speeches may be broken up into parts, but a trained interpreter is capable of consecutive interpretation of speeches several minutes long. The kind of interpretation is suitable for scientific and technical presentations given by a single speaker, or in meetings where only a small number of languages spoken, since it makes the meeting longer. Note- taking is an essential part of consecutive interpreting. It involves committing to paper the logic and structure of the statement as an aid to memory, rather than recording everything that is said.

     One argument made forcefully is that consecutive is gradually disappearing from the market. This claim is made mostly in Western Europe; in other markets, and in particular in Asia and in Eastern Europe, consecutive seems to be as lively as ever., due to its distinct advantages over simultaneous( less costly, less cumbersome in terms of equipment, more flexible over time and space). A further argument is that in programs serving a market where this mode of interpretation is not required, learning consecutive means devoting much time and energy to the acquisition of skills not relevant to the market. The researcher agrees with who counters this argument by claiming that simultaneous is just an “accelerated consecutive” and that the skills of consecutive are therefore relevant to simultaneous. Through the researcher’s relevant experience in this field he can clearly say there’s another disadvantage of consecutive is that the wages paid are less than those in simultaneous.

     In consecutive, during the listening phase, operations can be pooled together into:

- The listening effort, the same as in simultaneous;

- The production effort, producing notes, not a target-language version of the speech.

- Short-term memory effort, storing information just received until it is noted for that part of the information taken down as notes.            

8-1-2    Simultaneous:

 

     The interpreter sits in a booth, listens to the speaker in one language through headphones, and immediately speaks his interpretation into a microphone in another language. Let’s quote Danica Seleskovitch’s," to move the pitfall of listening and speaking at the same time in interpreting, it’s to understand the thought which will produce his/her next word." She is professor atUniversity of Paris,teaching interpreting for international conferences. Here the researcher may add that consecutive teaches interpreters the art of analysis which leads to simultaneous quite rapidly.Simultaneous interpretation is appropriate in bilingual or multilingual meetings and has the advantage of not lengthening the meeting. It encourages a lively discussion and more spontaneous contributions.

It requires a high level of concentration, since the interpreter is doing several things at once: Is simultaneous an “accelerated consecutive”?

             In cognitive terms, the most fundamental problem in interpreting is that is composed of a number of concurrent operations each of which require processing capacity. In simultaneous, such operations can be pooled together into “ Efforts”, such as:

A-  Listening effort and analyzing the source of speech .

B-   Production effort ,producing a target language version of the speech.

C-   A short-term memory effort, storing information just received from the speaker until it can be rendered in the target speech. If these are not invested into listening, words can be heard and forgotten without meaningful traces in the listener’s mind, as can be seen in consecutive when too much attention is devoted to note-taking and not enough to listening. Interpreters therefore take turns of about 30 minutes.

9-    Solving the Problem:

        One solution to cross-cultural differences for interpreting is to recruit more bilingual workers, rather than interpreters, who may , by virtue of their positions as the interface between the agencies for which they work and the communities they serve, be in much better position to bridge cultural differences and therefore to communicate more effectively. An example is still souring high about John, when we say John is owl. We do not mean is a pessimistic bird, but it stands in America and Europe cultures for wisdom, so John is a wise man.

        In Canada, for instance, the Supreme Court has laid down the standard for all court interpreting; the constitutionally guaranteed standard of interpreting is not one perfection; however, it is one of continuity, precision, impartiality, competency and contemporaneousness. An accused who does not understand and/or speak the language of the proceedings, be it French or English, has the right at every point in the proceedings in which the case is being advanced to receive interpretation which meets this basic standard, a Canadian ruling relating to sign language interpreting in the context of medical services had determined that interpreters must be provided where necessary for effective communication.

            While the Swedes adhere to the principal that interpretation means direct conversion of one language into without adding or changing anything. The French have developed the concept of cultural interpreting which entails explaining cultural differences. Saulvtr, in his survey ( 2000), 45 of 93 organizations in 13 Euro-countries, found that 60% agreed both that interpretation means the simple conveying of what is said and possibility of cultural; mediation. 2 of 45 organizations accepted that advocacy could be part of the work of the interpreter. However, most agreed that interpreters should also: help clients to fill in forms, explain foreign cultural references and meanings, explain technical terms to clients. Only a third agreed that interpreters should omit utterances which are not to the point to avoid losing time.

10-                      Disadvantages of Interpreting:

 

10-1                 There is no time for interpreter to checks his/her own production.

10-2                 Memorizing numbers and abbreviations.

10-3                 Reaching a saturated point may lead to make errors.

10-4                 Long-terms of concentration may cause headaches and stress.

11-                      The following differences between simultaneous and consecutive can be pointed out:

11-1       In simultaneous, two languages are processed at the same time, in consecutive is much weaker or even non-existent.

11-2       In simultaneous, target speech production occurs under heavy time pressure, in consecutive it is also high during listening phase.

11-3       In consecutive, the slowness of writing and the resulting delay between the moments information in heard and the moment it is noted submits working memory to high pressure in a specific way that is not found in simultaneous.

11-4       In consecutive, there is much involvement of long-term memory than in simultaneous.

11-5       In consecutive, while listening, interpreters have to decide what to take down in their notes and how, such these operations, which require specific know-how, are not found in simultaneous.

12-                      Limitations:

12-1     Spatial limitation: university and workplaces; most of consecutive and simultaneous interpreters, working in media and press domain, and it is not easy to question them.

12-2     Time limitation: students who study translation in 2016/2017.

13-                      Training View:

 

         In his paper discussing different models for the European countries, Desclous (1999) selected his data from in international conference in Vienna as well as follow-up interviews, more co-operation needed between these bodies requiring interpretation and those providing training interpreters, more openness within training organizations to the needs of the markets, training to be more closely related to a cultural work to help trainees develop subject competence; and the importance of going beyond the birds’ eye perspective of interpretation, where the interpreter hovers above culturally-bound, involving issues of interpretation, ethics and responsibility.

   Training programs: the project by Abraham and Oda (2000) in Toronto to train cultural /community interpreters to work with services aiming to combat domestic violence ( the police, the courts and hospitals) identifying the key skills the interpreter needs:

13-1       Facility in both languages.

13-2       Understanding of the confidentiality of the situations.

13-3       Understanding of the importance of accuracy.

13-4       Impartiality, reliability and lack of bias.

13-5       Understanding of basic and evidence procedures and criminal law as well.

13-6       Understanding that the interpreter may be subject to being called to court as a witness.

14-                      Conclusion

                 Translation and Interpretation are processes of replacing text in one language with text in another language. Text is not just a sum of its parts, and when words and sentences are used to communicate, they combine to make sense in different ways. Therefore, the entire text will be translated, instead of separate sentences or words. The communication text will carry its cultural features as it moves from language to language. The translator must be familiar with CNN and Tel cultures, knowing the purpose of communication and the public to make the right and timely decision to do its translation as an effective intercultural communication. You must bear in mind that, due to variations, there is no exact translation between any two languages.

             What one can hope for is approximation. The more similar the systems and cultures of the two languages ​​are, the more efficient the translation is in intercultural communication. In this research, we discussed the obstacles to translation through the culture of transport between languages. We also know that translation plays an important role in the globalization of culture, especially pop culture, which leads to giving the advantages of source culture, knowledge of customs and customs to religious customs. Since the researcher is Arabic-native and has been exposed to Finnish culture for many months, the researcher assumes that he has access to at least some knowledge of each of the cultural meaning systems, and therefore considers himself a cultured person for his research purposes. If more research is done with more data, it will add more ideas to the results of this research. In addition, the researcher hopes to have illustrated through this research translation and consecutive/ simultaneous differences and advantages, focusing on the job of the interpreter which involves to facilitate the communication among leaders to understand each other, even if not to agree from different kinds of summits to bilateral meetings and talks. Since in our globalised times many international seminars and conferences make use of conference interpretation

References

1- Glodjović, Anica (2010).TRANSLATION AS A MEANS OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION: SOME PROBLEMS IN LITERARY TEXT TRANSLATIONS. Linguistics and Literature Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 141 – 151. http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201002/lal201002-05.pdf

2- Tréguer-Felten, Geneviève (2017). The role of translation in the cross-cultural transferability of corporate codes of conduct. International journal of cross cultural management. Volume: 17 issue: 1, pages: 137-149. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1470595817694659

3- Thiruvasagam, G. (2010). “Translation’s Role in Global Scenario.” New Delhi: University News 48.01.

4- Sawant, Datta G. (2014). Translation: An Effective Way To Cross-cultural Communication in Globalization. file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Translation.pdf

5- Davaninezhad, Forogh K. (2009).Cross-Cultural Communication and Translation. Translation journal and the author.Vo.13, No.4.http://translationjournal.net/journal/50culture.htm

6- House, J. (2009). Translation. New York: Oxford UP.

7- P. Newmark. (1988), A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall., p. 94.

8- L. Venuti, (2002). On the Different Methods of Translating. The Translation Studies Reader.

9- Abbasi, Gelavizh ; Saleh- zadeh, Saman; Assemi, Arezoo and Dehghan, Saadat, S.(2012). Language, Translation, and Culture. International Conference on Language, Medias and Culture. IPEDR vol.33. IACSIT Press, Singapore. http://www.ipedr.com/vol33/017-ICLMC2012-L00062.pdf

10- Huiping, Xian (2008). "Lost in translation? Language, culture and the roles of translator in crosscultural management research", Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 3 Issue: 3, pp.231-245.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17465640810920304

11- Muñoz-Calvo, Micaela and Buesa-Gómez, Carmen (2010), Translation and Cultural Identity: Selected Essays on Translation and Cross-Cultural Communication. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. http://www.cambridgescholars.com/download/sample/61310

12- Felberg, T., & Skaaden, H. (2012). The (de)construction of culture in interpreter-mediated medical discourse. Linguistica Antverpiensia. Vol. 11, pages 95112.

13- Roberts, R.A.; Dufour, A.D., & Steyn, D. (1997). The critical link: Interpreters in the community. AmsterdamJohn Benjamins.

14- Migration/Refugee Review Tribunal. (2011). Migration review tribunal and refugee review tribunal interpreters' handbook. Retrieved 11 April, 2013, from. http://www.mrt-rrt.gov.au/CMSPages/GetFile.aspx?guid=3e230da7-96de-4103-a7f4-4f18ee25519a

15- Hale, Sandra (2014). Interpreting culture. Dealing with cross-cultural issues in court interpreting. Studies in Translation Theory and Practice. Vol. 22, Issue. 3, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0907676X.2013.827226?needAccess=true

16- Yu, Qiufen (2014). Understanding the Impact of Culture on Interpretation: A Relevance Theoretic Perspective. Intercultural Communication Studies XXIII: 3. https://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/Qiufen-YU.pdf

17- GERCEK, Seyda ERASLAN (2007). “Cultural Mediator” or “Scrupulous Translator”? Revisiting Role, Context and Culture in Consecutive Conference Interpreting. https://www.arts.kuleuven.be/cetra/papers/files/eraslan-gercek.pdf

18- Hong, Ying-yi; Morris, Michael W.; Chiu, Chiyue and Benet-Martinez, Veronnica (2000). Multicultural mind: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist. Vol.55, No(7), pages 709-720.

19- Pöchhacker, Franz (1995). Simultaneous Interpreting: A Functionalist Perspective. Hermes, Journal of Linguistics. vol. 14 Pages 31-54. file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/25094-58338-1-SM.pdf

20- Lederer, Marianne (1978). “Simultaneous Interpretation - Units of Meaning and other Features”. In: D. Gerver & H. W. Sinaiko (eds.) Language Interpretation and Communication. New York: Plenum Press, 323-332.

21- Darwish, Ali (2006), Standards of Simultaneous Interpreting in Live Satellite Broadcasts: Arabic Case Study. TRANSLATION WATCH QUARTERLY. Volume 2, Issue 2.Pages 55-106.

http://www.translocutions.com/turjuman/papers/TWQ_JUNE2006_issue_ALI_DARWISH_PAPER.pdf

22- Gile, D. (1997). Conference Interpreting as a Cognitive Management Problem in Danks, et al, (eds) (1997). Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting. Applied Psychology, Volume 3. Sage Publications: California.

23- Bouladon, Valarie.T (2007). “Conference interpreting, principles and practice.2nd edition. Booksurge LIc.

24- Brown, Derrick. (March,2011). “Problem analysis techniques.” Director of IRM Training Pty Ltd. Jan Kusiak, Australia.

25- Dr.Woomer, Paul . (2004). “Innovative and problem solving.”

26- Gile, Daniel. (2001). “ Consecutive Vs. Simultaneous: which is more accurate?”The Journal of the Japan Association for Interpretation.(10-12).

27- Gillies, Andrew. (2005). “Note-taking for consecutive interpreting.” A short course. Manchester St. Jerome Publishing Co. p.(7-8).

28- McPake, Joanna and Johnston, Richard (2002). “Scottish executive central research unit 2002, a literature review, translating, interpreting and communication support services across the Public Sector in Scotland.”pdf research published on October, 2006. Edinburgh.

29- Velia, Ficci.(1999). “Learning consecutive interpretation: an empirical study and an autonomous approach.” Volume 4, No.2, .p (20). John Benjamin Publishing Co.

Log in

Log in