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The Relationship between Critical Thinking and EFL Students’ Ability to Translate Children’s Literature

Abstract

The aim of this investigation is to find a way to solve problems in translation of children’s literature; therefore critical thinking is selected as a way to remove problems in this field. The research method is mainly quantitative; however, qualitative method is also used to answer research questions. The research population consists of 30 EFL master translation students in third term who were chosen from three universities (Tehran University, Shahid Bahonar University and Kerman Institute of Higher Education) aged between 24 and 32 years, and they were divided into two groups, high and low, based on the results of their critical thinking questionnaire. Moreover, students in both groups were asked to translate two texts which had been selected from two children’s story books. The procedure used in the study ran parallel for both groups, and instruments selected for the purpose of the study were critical thinking questionnaire and two tests of translation and also a scoring rubric to evaluate two tests of translation. The findings revealed significance relationship between critical thinking and translation of children’s literature. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that translators with more critical abilities were more successful in translation performance. These findings highlight the importance of teaching critical thinking skills to our translators and Integrating problem solving activities in our translation process.

Keywords: Critical Thinking, Children’s literature, Translation ability, EFL translation students, Problem solving, English, Persian

1. Introduction

Critical thinking is a thinking process that includes the component skills of analyzing arguments, making inferences using inductive or deductive reasoning, judging or evaluating and making decisions or solving problems, and it involves both cognitive skills and dispositions (Dewey, 1930). Therefore, dispositions relate to attitudes or habits of mind including open and fair mindedness in flexibility, a propensity to seek reason, and a desire to be well-informed. Researchers found that people begin developing critical thinking competencies at a very young age, although adults often exhibit deficient reasoning in theory all people can be taught to think critically. Dewey (1933) confirmed that the essential aim of education is learning to think.

In the other words, a person that has critical thinking who is a critical thinker. Even if one doesn’t have critical thinking, curriculum relevant to learning CT is provided critical thinking skills. Learning CT concerning how to think critically means the ability to distinguish facts from hypotheses, conclusion from evidence and relevant from irrelevant material.

Critical thinking is not new, it returns to the teaching routines of Socrates 2500 years ago. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in authority to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that a person may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief (Paul, Elder & Bartell, 1997). Plymouth University (2000) published, “Thinking critically means asking questions. Instead of accepting what you read or hear, critical thinkers look for evidence and for good reasons before believing something to be true.” (p. 34).

Also, Moon (2008) asserted that critical thinking can be regarded as a central aim of learning and a core of higher education, and learners who reach those levels of requirements can be considered as critical thinkers. Moreover, Ennis (2011) defined critical thinking as the ability to think logically and make good decisions in doing something or  believing something.

In addition, Critical thinking is the key to learning and to making progress. Also  something can improve critical thinking, and one of the abilities is translation that critical thinking affected on it. When translators don’t accept the first meaning or equivalent, therefore they find the other meanings to make their texts more accurate due to the fact that translation has a complex and multilayered quality which still needs exploration and thinking.

IGI Global published a title about critical thinking in translation which defined a cognitive skill providing an ability to analyze the source text from different angles inclusively of linguistic, extra linguistic and pragmatic aspect, as well as an ability to evaluate target text as to the degree of its adequacy in relation to ST and particular conditions of the given instance of translation.

In fact translation is a very challenging and complex process, calls for different skills and knowledge areas. Also it associates with various cognitive and critical thinking abilities. In addition to translation means communication from source language to target language, and it is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions (Toury, 2000).

Moreover, Alves (2003) believed that translation, similar to many other qualified  capacities, requires not only innate abilities but also theoretical learning and practical  training. It was surveyed that theories and innate abilities couldn’t complete translation skills alone, therefore mental skills had an important role on translation. As Shahvali (2004) claimed that, “theoretical knowledge and practical skills alone are not enough to prepare students for developments in the field. It is necessary to focus on students' self-updating ability and to improve their related mental, planning and communicative skills.”

Consequently, one of the branches of literary translation is an important process on translating which is children’s literature translation. Children's books are difficult texts for translators, because translators must find a way to communicate with children, and they know their feeling and culture. Children's translators should learn some strategies and theories but apart from them, the other way has an effective impact on children's translation that is critical thinking, moreover critical thinking is a process which solves problems. According to the effect of critical thinking on decision process, whereas this process is so important in translation, and improves the power of thought, in this paper was being studied the relationship between critical thinking and EFL students ability to translate children’s literature.

1.2. Statement of the problems

One of the important abilities English translation students are expected to master at the end of their university education is the ability to translate competently. While so many classes are presented for EFL translation students at universities, the output is usually less than satisfactory. It can be seen that even senior or graduated students of translation are not able to translate appropriately because they lack necessary grammatical and vocabulary knowledge, which in turn leads to comprehension problems. Using ineffective and unproductive  strategies can be considered as another source of this inefficiency.

Moreover, students are not learned critical thinking as the other skills in the pedagogical process in order to solve problems in translation of children’s literature, the main problems of children's literature translation are:

  1. Children's literature translators lack knowledge of TLculture.
  2. Children’s literature translators have a big problem to think creativity to create equivalent for personal name of children's storybook.
  3. Children's literature translators lack approach everything to use appropriate idioms according to reader'sage

1.3. Objectives of the study

The important key that every translator considers as the best key to improve their ability is critical thinking. Thinking rationally is the first step to translating. The main objective of this study has been improved translators ability to translate children's literature, whereas translating children’s book is a difficult profession and translators need to know about skills, strategies to convey meaning and find equivalent from L1 to L2. The children's literature translation (CHLT) is an area that is relatively novel within translation studies (TS) (O'connel, et al, 2005). This study was considered the effect of critical thinking on children's literature translation and compared two groups (low & high) critical thinkers and their ability to solve problems in this field. According to Huitt (1998), thinking has an essential role in one's achievement and success especially in the information era. The main objectives of this research were to study:

  1. Find the relationship between critical thinking and EFL students’ ability to translate children’sliterature.
  2. Consider that critical thinking has more effect on translation of children’s literature from English to Persian or Persian toEnglish.
  3. Investigate the effect of critical thinking on solving three main problems in thisfield.

1.4. Significance of the study

Theories, experience and strategies are important factors in translation. Translators want to solve their problems that relate to those factors, but it can be seen that most translating problems have remained unsolved, because translation is a challenging and difficult area for EFL students. The problems neither relate to strategies, skills nor theories and experience. They relate to thinking in translation.

Critical thinking in children's literature translation (CHLT) can be applied. Whereas thinking is an important process in translation that translators sometimes ignore it. The goal  of this study is: 1) Investigate the effect of critical thinking on CHLT and introduce an accurate way to EFL translation students in order to increase their translation ability in this field 2) Effort to remove problems (idioms, proper names and cultural equivalent) in this field and increase translation quality.

According to what was said, students should be learned critical thinking skills as academic programs, since critical thinkers can solve problems in this field and increase their translation quality. Thus the results of this study can be taken into consideration in the pedagogical process.

1.5. Theoretical framework

The theoretical framework which was used is based on Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Bloom in 1948, a group of educators undertook the task of classifying education goals and objectives. The intent was to develop a classification system for three domains: the cognitive, the affective and the psychomotor. Work on the cognitive domain was completed  in the 1950s and is commonly referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain ( Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956).

1.6. Research Questions

In this study, it was investigated that how much translators think critically and it was found how much this ability relates to their performance on translation of children’s literature.

The following questions were formulated:

  1. Is there any significante relationship between critical thinking and EFL students’ ability to translate children’sliterature?
  2. Is there any difference between two groups (high &low)?
  3. Does CT more affect on translation of children’s literature from Persian to English or English toPersian?
  4. Does it solve any problem in translation of children’sliterature?

1.7. Research null hypothesis

Based on the research questions of the study, mentioned above, the null hypothesis are as follows:

HO1: There isn’t any significante relationship between critical thinking and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature.

HO2: There isn’t any difference between two groups (high & low)?

HO3: CT doesn’t affect on translation of children’s literature from Persian to English.

HO4: It can’t solve problems in translation of children's literature.

2. Review of Related Literature

Critical thinking is the process of thinking about what is true and what is false. Critical thinking involves logic and logical fallacies, also separate facts from opinions. Moreover, it is a process in which a critical thinker doesn’t accept anything without examination and it involves someone to ask question from her/himself and others. In addition, critical thinkers are ready or eager to explore all ideas and all point of views, they are looking for the truth. Then critical thinkers question everything, and Using their tools to explore the truth whenever it may hide, as a result their tools are logic and experience.

A person learn how to use critical thinking in order to analyzes and judges information  that are not always taken from different sources, sometimes the data already exist in one’s mind. Based on Scriven & Paul (1987), critical thinking is not a matter of accumulating information. Critical thinking is able to deduce consequences from what he knows, and he knows how to use information to solve problems, and to seek relevant sources of information to inform himself.

According to Wood (2002), some points that critical thinkers must have:

1) logical fallacies 2) reasoning 3) separate facts from opinion 4) open minded 5) asking questions 6) self-regulation 7) looking for the truth 8) using tools to (logic, research and experience) to explore the truth 9) clear something.

Maybe an important way to increase the quality of translation is critical thinking as Wilss mentioned that CT affected on translation and solved translation’s problem; therefore Critical thinking has a relationship between translation and it associates with various cognitive and critical thinking abilities. Azin & Heidari (2002), tried to examine the relationship between critical thinking ability of Iranian English translation students and their translation ability.  The findings revealed a significant correlation between critical thinking and translation ability. It was concluded that critical thinking has significant role in translation students of Iranian in university.

3. Method

3.2. Participants

To achieve the main purpose of this study that relates to critical thinking and EFL students ability towards translation of children’s literature. The participants of this study were 30 EFL master translation students of Tehran University, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman and Kerman Institute of Higher Education. It was supposed that students were homogeneous in term of their language proficiency, and they consisted of both male and female translation students, ranging in age from 24 to 32 years old.

3.3. Instruments

In order to investigate the relationship between CT and EFL students ability to translate children’s literature, 3 types of instruments were used in this study.

3.3.1. California Critical Thinking skills Test (CCTST)

The standard version of California Critical Thinking Skills Test including 30 items was designed to measure EFL translation students’ critical thinking skills at knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation and making decision or problem solving. The overall score of this test is 30, and based on this test, the participants were divided into two groups of high and low groups of critical thinking. In addition, critical thinking questionnaire had answer key in order to measure critical thinking abilities.

3.3.2. Children’s literature Translation Tests

In order to evaluate translation ability, EFL translation students translated some sentences from two children’s story books which were implied idioms, proper name, cultural equivalent and emotion. Also they were using all translation technologies and tools. Texts were translated from English to Persian in 30 minutes and from Persian to English in 30 minutes. Translation texts were evaluated by the Holistic Method C of Washington’s Translation Quality Assessment Rubric (2011).

3.3.3. Corpus of the Study

Two texts were selected from two children’s story books, and they had proper names, idioms, cultural issues and some problems that related to children’s literature translation. A story was selected from age 6 to 10 in the name of Aghaz that was written by Mahmoud Barabadi. He was a board member in Iranian Association of writers for children. Some of his works have a cultural and historical context and he has tried to introduce the children to important historical figures through stories. Aghaz is a story, was published in 1360 which refers to Iranian culture, children’s world and their feeling.

English story was selected from age 8 to 10 in the name of Child of The Silent Night was edited by Fisher Hunter. This story is famous related to a girl suffered from an illness. Child of The Silent Night was published in 1983 by Pennsylvania State University.

3.4. Data collection procedures

In three sessions, both critical thinking questionnaire and translation texts were administered to the participants. The allocated time for answering CCTST was about 20 minutes, and for translation tests 60 minutes. Questionnaire was used in order to find critical thinking skills, moreover six skills were applied in questionnaire, but they were evaluated as  a total number in order to investigate the relationship between critical thinking ability and problem solving in translation of children’s literature.

Six skills of critical thinking are knowledge, comprehension, application, analyzing, synthesis and evaluation which were evaluated based on questionnaire. Actually, researcher translated questionnaire in order to remove obstacles in each question, because students must understood items, also researcher used answer key of questionnaire in order to find accurate result.

In addition to questionnaire, two texts were conducted to gather information concerning translation of children’s literature. EFL translation students translated some important sentences from two children’s story books, also they were supposed to know all theories and strategies in this field. Also each text had idioms, proper names and cultural items which  were assessed by researcher and an expert.

3.5. Data analysis

Data analysis refers to describing data in order to evaluate EFL translation students’ critical thinking toward translation of children’s literature. The details of analyzing data are  as follows.

3.5.1. The Quantitative Data Analysis Procedures

In this study, the data were collected using both qualitative and quantitative procedures. The CCTST and translation tests were used to gather quantitative data concerning the relationship between CT and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature. Data were computed based on questionnaire and translation tests, also the extracted information were used to compute the relationship between critical thinking and translation ability in two groups (high and low) critical thinkers. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were also performed in order to find the results of this study. Moreover, translation texts were evaluated by Holistic Method C of Washington’s Translation Quality Assessment Rubric (2011).

3.5.2. The Qualitative Data Analysis Procedures

Qualitative data were collected through descriptive statistics due to the fact that  descriptive statistics are used to describe sample data, also set of data conveyed a message to analyze data for this study. In fact this study attempted to find the relationship between CT and translation of children’s literature. Furthermore, the results were shown on diagrams and figures by Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet, also SPSS program was applied to computed descriptive statistics.

4. Result

4.2. Descriptive Statistics

Tests were computed to examine the relationship between critical thinking and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature. Therefore, this part reveals the differences between  participants  in  high  and  low  group,  due  to  the  fact  that  one  can  observe  the

relationship between critical thinking and translation of children’s literature from Persian to English and English to Persian among 30 EFL master translation students who were chosen from 3 universities. In order to investigate the results of this study, SPSS 23.0 was employed.

4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Critical thinking and Translation Tests in the first group

Table 4.3 below, highlights the results of t-test that there isn’t a significant difference in scores of critical thinking and translation tests

Descriptive Statistics

Critical Thinking

Persian to English

English to Persian

Valid N (listwise)

N

Statistics

18

18

18

18

Range

Statistics

12

17

9

Minimum

Statistics

15

12

20

Maximum

Statistics

27

29

29

Sum

Statistics

383

354

451

Mean

Statistic

21.28

19.67

25.06

Std. Error

.839

1.333

.712

Std. Deviation

Statistic

3.561

5.657

3.019

Variance

Statistic

12.683

32.000

9.114

Skewness

Statistic

.007

.486

-.536

Std. Error

.536

.536

.536

Kurtosis

Statistic

-.953

-1.034

-.975

Std. Error

1.038

1.038

1.038

First column is descriptive analysis, second is critical thinking, third is Persian to English translation and fourth is English to Persian translation. As one can see first column shows statistics which were computed by t-test, and each row shows specific score related to each instrument which was used by students in order to evaluate EFL students’ ability to investigate more accurate conclusion in this field.

According to the statistics, range is defined simply as the difference between the maximum and minimum observations and range should suggest how diversely spread out the values are, and by computing the difference between the maximum and minimum values, we can get an estimate of the spread of the data. In the above table range of three variables are (CT=12, Per.Eng=17, Eng.Per=9), as t-test shows mean is average we are used to, where we add up all the numbers and then divide the number of numbers, also above table shows mean of three variables (CT=21.28, Per.Eng=19.67, Eng.Per=25.06).

In addition to Std. deviation means how far from the normal, in the above table  Std.deviation of three variables are (CT=3.561, Per.Eng=5.657, Eng.Per=3.19). Then variance of three variables are (CT=12.683, Per.Eng=32.000, Eng.Per=9.114) variance is defined as, the average of the squared differences from the mean. Skewness is a measure of symmetry or more precisely, the lack of symmetry, but Kurtosis is a measure of whether the data are heavy-tailed or light tailed relative to normal distribution. As the above table shows there isn’t a significant difference between three instruments, and the next part or analysis of data is compared the difference between table 4.3 & 4.4.

After questionnaire, students in each group translated the same texts in order to find the results of this study. Two texts were chosen from two children’s story books. As one can see in the table 4.3, it is the result of t-test from first group or participants with high critical thinking ability, and it shows that first group was (N=18) and sum of scores in Persian to English is lower than English to Persian. It means the errors in translation of children’s literature from Persian to English are more than English to Persian.

Variance and Std.deviation show scores are normal and translators or students translated or answered in the same level but few differences were appeared in the scores of participants in translation from Persian to English, it means their scores in this case are not almost at the same level.

4.3.2. Descriptive Statistics of Critical thinking and Translation tests in the second  group

Table 4.4 below, highlights the results of t-test that there isn’t a significant difference in scores of critical thinking and translation tests.

Descriptive Statistics

Critical Thinking

Persian    to

English

English         to

Persian

Valid N (listwise)

N

Statistics

12

12

12

12

Range

Statistics

6

7

10

Minimum

Statistics

8

8

10

Maximum

Statistics

14

15

20

Sum

Statistics

135

141

172

Mean

Statistic

11.25

11.75

14.33

Std. Error

.687 .579

.940

Std. Deviation

Static

2.379 2.006

3.257

Variance

Statistic

5.659 4.023

10.606

Skewness

Statistic

-.307 -.238

1.73

Std. Error

.637 .637 .637
Kurtosis Statistic -1.467 -.0423 -.987
Std. Error 1.232 1.232 1.232

Also the sum of scores in each variable show that scores are close to each other, but it shows the ability of participants in low critical thinking level in translation from English to Persian is higher than Persian to English. Actually their power to translate children’s  literature from English to Persian are more than Persian to English, but the mean of three variables are close to each other.

Consequently, sum of critical thinking scores of two groups are lower than translation of children’s book from English to Persian, it means the power of students in each group in translation of children’s book from English to Persian is more than their ability to think critically. But they have strong relationship, as it will be proved in the other parts.

4.5. Inferential statistics

In this part, Coefficient of Correlation between Critical Thinking and Translation ability is considered.

Also Pearson correlation is used to show the relationship between three variables. In the other words it assesses the relationship between critical thinking of each participant and translation of children’s literature from English to Persian and Persian to English. In fact this study uses correlation to show that is there any correlation between three variables? In order to assess critical thinking ability, participants were divided into two groups. First group is related to participants with high critical thinking ability, so the scores of critical thinking in this group are in the higher rating, and second group is related to participants with low critical thinking ability, so the scores of critical thinking in this group are in the lower rating.

This study uses the Pearson correlation to reject or accept first null hypothesis as in chapter one, it was mentioned that there isn’t any relationship between critical thinking and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature from English to Persian and Persian to English.

Correlations

 

critical1

Persian to English

 

critical 1

Pearson

Correlation

1

.852**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

 

N

18

18

 

Persian

to English

Pearson

Correlation

.852**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 
 

18

18

 

N

Table 4.5 shows the relationship between high critical thinking level and translation of children’s literature from Persian to English.

According to the above table, the null hypothesis was safely rejected in the first group. Pearson correlation revealed that if there is p< 0.1, the relationship is weak. But the relationship could be almost strong, if Pearson correlation is between 0.1 and 0.5 or 1≤│p│≤

So the relationship between them may be very strong, if there is p>0.5. Moreover, the relationship between them is evaluated by significance, if there is sig< 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected.  According to table 4.5, Pearson correlation of first group in this case  is 0.8 that is more than 0.1, therefore the relationship between CT and translation of  children’s literature from Persian to English is very strong. Significance is also less than 0.05, so first null hypothesis in relation with that there isn’t relationship between CT and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature from Persian to English is rejected or in the other words variables in the first group have strongcorrelation.

Correlations

 

critical1

English to Persian

 

critical 1

Pearson

Correlation

1

.759**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

 

N

18

18

 

English

to Persian

Pearson

Correlation

.759**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 
 

18

18

 

N

Table 4.6 high critical thinking level and translation of children’s literature from English to Persian.

The results from table 4.6 indicate that there is a large positive relationship between CT and EFL students’ ability to translate children’s literature from English to Persian that was computed from participants with higher critical thinking ability. So table 4.5 reveals that the results of first group (high) in translation of Persian to English, but table 4.6 shows the results of that group in translation of English to Persian.

According to table 4.6, coefficient of correlation of first group in this case is 0.7 that is more than 0.1 (0.7>0.1), so there is a large positive relationship between them. Significance  is also less than 0.05, therefore the first null hypothesis in relation with two variables is rejected. Consequently, it is revealed that there is a strong relationship between participants with high CT ability and their high ability to translate children’s literature from Persian to English and English to Persian.

Second group has low critical thinking ability, so the scores of critical thinking in this  group are low. Therefore, Pearson correlation evaluates the scores of participants with low critical thinking ability in relation with translation of two texts.

Correlations

 

critical2

Persian to English

 

Pearson Correlation

1

-.060

critical

2

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.0000

 

N

12

12

 

Pearson Correlation

-.060

1

Persian

to English

Sig. (2-tailed)

.0000

 

 

N

12

12

Table 4.7 low critical thinking level and translation of children’s literature from Persian to English.

According to the above table, coefficient of correlation reveals that if there is p< 0.1, the relationship is weak. But the relationship could be almost strong, if Pearson correlation is between 0.1 and 0.5 or 1≤│p│≤ 5. So the relationship between them may be very strong, if there is p>0.5. Moreover, the relationship between them is evaluated by significance, if it is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected. Table 4.7 shows that coefficient of correlation of this group in this case is 0.06 that is less than 0.1, so there is a weak relationship between low critical thinking ability and the high power of children’s literature translation. Moreover, above table shows that significance is 0.003, therefore first null hypothesis in this case is rejected.

Correlations

 

critical2

English to Persian

 

Pearson Correlation

1

-.072

critical2

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.0000

 

N

12

12

 

Pearson Correlation

-.072

1

English

to Persian

Sig. (2-tailed)

.0000

 

N

 

12

 

12

Table 4.8 low critical thinking level and translation of children’s literature from English to Persian.

According to the above table coefficient of correlation is 0.06 that is less than 0.1 (0.06<0.1), moreover significance is 0.0004, it means first null hypothesis is rejected. The study has revealed that high critical thinking ability has positive relationship with translation of children’s literature from English to Persian and Persian to English. As table 4.7 & 4.8 showed that the critical thinking ability of second group is affected on their score of translation tests and their ability to translate children’s literature is low. In fact, whatever critical thinking is low, problems in translation are raised.

5. Disscusion

The result of this study confirmed that the answer of first research question is yes. As the descriptive statistics of this study have shown, there is a significant relationship between CT and CHLT. Whatever critical thinking ability is higher, translation quality is better. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that learners with superior level of critical thinking had better performance in translation of children’s literature. The obtained result suggests that the critical thinkers in higher level not only translate source and target language texts better, but also they have more power to solve problems in comparison to lower level ones. This positive relationship between critical thinking and translation ability is in line with the results of copious previous research papers that confirmed the significant role of critical thinking on various aspects of language teaching and learning (Fahim et al., 2010; Niko pour et al., 2011; Rashid & Hashim, 2008; Kamali & Fahim, 2011; Myers& Dyer, 2006; Mango, 2010).

It was also found that there isn’t significant difference in relation with critical thinking and Persian to English or English to Persian translation. This study also found that the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies was higher among good translators. As a matter of fact, critical thinking is the ability to solve problems in each field, since translators are encountered with problems in this field, they must improve their critical thinking abilities and increase their ability to think deeply in order to solve problems.

One of the basic skills that students should gain for academic success is critical thinking and critical thinkers achieve more in their academic tasks; besides, by developing these skills they become more capable to integrate with their society (Fahim and Komijani, 2010). Huitt (1998) marks, “The movement to the information age has focused attention on good thinking as an important element of life success”. In this way, as Chalesworth (2004) states, one learns to  think  for oneself  and  develop  his  mind  to  its  fullest  potential.  Intellectually involved students value questions more than answers, strive for comprehension over rote  memorization, and then as a basic element of these processes, students learn how to learn.

6. Conclusion

The present study investigated the relationship between critical thinking and EFL  students’ ability to translate children’s literature. It was also looked for findings the differences between critical thinking ability and translation of children’s literature from English to Persian and from Persian to English. Based on the results of this study which were presented in detail in chapter 4, the null hypotheses of the study were rejected. In the other words, the research provided the evidence that there was a significance relationship between critical thinking ability and translation of children’s literature. As a result, the participants in high level of critical thinking have better performance in translation of children’s literature from Persian to English and English to Persian, and they have the power of solve problems in this field. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that learners with more critical abilities were more successful in translation performance. These findings highlight the importance of teaching critical thinking skills to our translators and Integrating problem solving activities in our translation process. As Mander stated that thinking is skilled work, and it is not true that we are naturally endowed with the ability to think clearly and logically- without learning how, or without practicing.

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