1. The subject and the objective of this paper
he subject of this paper is the presentation of my research concerning the expansion of the German, Russian, and Hungarian economic lexicons with specific regard to the neologisms that can be observed in the language use in the hotel trade. The paper intends to contribute to the research in the field of applied linguistics, the linguistics of special languages (Banczerowski 2000:281) by the elaboration of some issues of special foreign word formation at the morpho-syntactic and the lexico-semantic levels.
The choice of subject was motivated by the fact that many German, Russian, and Hungarian linguists deal with the modification of the lexicons of their own mother languages, but comparative studies are few and far between. We can find several references to the lesson we could draw from the comparative study of neologisms formed in the countries that underwent a regime change (Minya 2003: 91, Zemskaja 1996: 25). Moreover the novelty of the subject lies in the combined research on neologisms and special economic language.
Hungarian and Russian users of the special language as compared to German users, are more willing to find the equivalents of the English elements flowing into the language.
In recent years, at our colleges and universities, tourism/catering has been attracting an ever increasing interest, which requires teachers to have a profound knowledge of the language use in the given special fields. For this reason the author undertook a comprehensive study of the lexical units used in the hotel trade. This paper aims to point out the reasons for the appearance of new lexical units used in the hotel trade and their roles within the context in the German, Hungarian, and Russian languages; furthermore it strives to reveal the similarities and differences in the German-Hungarian, and German-Russian directions.
2. Research Methods
During the research I employed various methods.
- I built the corpora of text types of such German, Russian, and Hungarian special journals, in which experts communicate with experts, and whose profiles and frequencies of publication are more or less the same.
- In order to prove my hypotheses I chose the method of computer-assisted corpus analysis.
- Before starting my study, I selected the neologisms to be examined, by various selection procedures.
- I conducted a quantitative and qualitative study on the corpora.
- When performing the study, I applied the contrastive method, which is a comparative-descriptive procedure in the course of which the researcher concentrates on the differences between the two language systems under study (Rein 1983 : 1). In order to preserve accuracy and authenticity, I only compared two languages at a time. The method applied is always of an asymmetric character (GakRojzenblit 1965 : 3) , i.e. out of the languages to be studied one is the source language, while the second and third languages are the target languages.
- The German economichotel trade special language is more susceptible to English borrowingsas compared to Russian and Hungariannot only because the English and German uses of hotel trade language have been in a closer contact with each other due to older business relations, but also because English and German are structurally closer to each other than English and Russian or English and Hungarian.
- When analyzing the Russian and Hungarian equivalents of the German hotel trade terms, it can be observed that in Russian and Hungarian in most cases the German compound word is expressed by a collocation / word-group, e.g. Einfuhrverbotbehozatali tilalom / запрет на ввоз, Unternehmenstдtigkeitvállalati tevékenység / предпринимательская деятельность. However there has been a shift towards compound words in the Russian and Hungarian hotel trade specialized press, too.
- The formation of inner neologisms as an alternative to external neologisms is more active, and their use is more frequent in the Russian and Hungarian hotel trade special languages than in the German language. E.g. an alternative to das Internet das Weltnetz lexeme is only used by purists, while the Russian and Hungarian language users more often use the internally formed lexemes to replace the loanwords: интернет / internet, that is всемирная паутина or világháló. (See also: Cash & Carry-Prinzip (German), but: концепция «плати и бери» (Russian) „Fizess és vidd"- elv (Hungarian).
This study gives an overview of the literature of neologism research, neologism typologies, and anglicisms, placing a special emphasis on the systematization of neologism types, outlining the main steps of borrowing, and defining the term Anglo-neologism.
The author systematizes the types of neologisms with certain modifications and extensions following the models given by Herberg-Kinne-Steffens (2004), Epstein (2006) and Minya (2003, 2007). My study in respect of the definition of neologism accepts Herberg's approach:
„Ein Neologismus ist eine lexikalische Einheit (bzw. ein Formativ oder eine Bedeutung), die in einem bestimmten Abschnitt der Sprachentwicklung auf Grund kommunikativer Bedürfnisse in einer Sprachgemeinschaft aufkommt, sich ausbreitet, als sprachliche Norm kollektiv akzeptiert und in diesem Entwicklungsabschnitt von der Mehrheit der Sprachbenutzer über eine gewisse Zeit als neu empfunden wird."' A neologism is such a lexical unit (or such a formative or meaning) that is formed at a certain stage of language development, on the basis of communicative needs in a certain communicative community, spreads, becomes accepted as a language norm, and at this stage of language development most language users perceive it as new' (Herberg 1988:110).
Furthermore the author finds Malinski's condition important for defining Neologism according to which we can speak of a neologism only then if the given key word occurs at least three times in the base corpus, and if the occurrences originate from at least two different sources, and they are not the citations of each other. In the rest of the cases we talk of an occasionalism (hapax legomenon) or a journalist's individual word formation (Malinski 1992 : 67).
By an Anglicism we mean every simple word or compound word in the German language that originates from the British or American varieties of the English language, and also the changes in meaning and word use in the German language caused by the impact of the English language. These can be e.g. meaning borrowing, loan translation, structure imitation, word-formation following a foreign pattern, the increase of the frequency of occurrence, and the rebirth of certain lexemes (Busse 1993 : 15). Furthermore by anglicism we mean every phenomenon in a language that is attributable to the transference of the American variety of the English language. Consequently an anglicism can be any German linguistic element irrespective of the fact of whether or not it has the meaning accepted in English (Busse 2001 : 134). Dieter Herberg, the former head of the neologism research team at the Institut für Deutsche Sprache considers all those language elements Anglo-neologisms (Anglo-neologismen) that got into the German language from any variety of the English language (Herberg 2001 : 96, 2002 : 195, Herbert-Kinne - Steffens 2004 : XV).
The author highlights the economic special language among the multitude of special languages and proves its extremely heterogeneous character. Applying Hoffmann's well-known model (Hoffmann 1984 : 66) and Braun's classification (Braun 1993 : 194), this paper distinguishes three vertical levels of economic language use:
- theoretical economics can be placed at the level of the theoretical sciences. This type of communication has the highest degree of abstraction. Its typical genres are: the scientific treatise, the scientific works, and the special books, in which a theoretical economist communicates with a theoretical economist or with a prospective economist. In addition to the natural language, artificial mathematical codes are also used to express symbols and relations, such as Volumenertrag (scale of return = the expression of the extent of relation between the increase of all the resources and the increase of output by economic-mathematical calculation: α*Q = f (β*K; β*L.)
- the various economic sub-disciplines, e.g. international forwarding, economy and management, economy and marketing, can be placed at the level of applied sciences. Typical genres include der Geschäftsbericht (business report), die Allgemeine Lieferbedingungen (the general terms of delivery), and der Kaufvertrag (the sales contract). The degree of abstraction of the typical genres is still high, and they are terminologically loaded, the typical terms can be e.g.: die Incoterms (Incoterms), die AIDA-Formel (the AIDA-model), das Termingeschäft (the forward contract) ) das Yield Management (yield management), (außenwirtschaftliches Gleichgewicht (balance of trade).
- the everyday economic language use can be put at the level of Hoffmann's 'consumption' level, which is the way the non-specialist, but interested person or the man in the street talks or writes e-mails about the tax system or the inflation, the price rise, the new choice of products, etc. This level has the lowest degree of abstraction. It can be considered the everyday / standard language; the sentence construction is free, and some special terms are used, e.g. Preiserhöhung (price rise) Inflation (inflation), Arbeitslosigkeit (unemployment).
The following statements can be made on the basis of the study at the morpho-syntactic level:
The neologisms examined can be broken into the following subcategories according to the type of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs account for 95%, 2.6%, and 2.3% of the words respectively. If we compare these proportions to the proportions of the general languagenouns85%, adjectives3%, verbs10% - (HerbertKinneSteffens 2004 : XVI), our findings prove the thesis of nominalization, namely that nominalization is typical of special languages.
According to the type of word-formation the following types are characteristic of the corpus: simple words, compound words, collocations equivalent to lexemes, derivationsthese word-formation types are conversions at the same time.
The gender of Anglo-neologisms is formed under the combined effects of several factors; the competing variants live by one another for a long time; naturally gender is also influenced by regional differences, e.g.: der / das Account, der / die / das Shuttle, der / das Trolley.
The phonetic assimilation is difficult to trace in the written language; thus it cannot be proved, it can only be demonstrated by the plurals of nouns, such as: Destinationen and Stationen.
The orthographic assimilation takes place at the moment the Anglo-neologisms enter the German context, but the increased use of the numerous technological devices, tools, and phenomena that are expressed by English lexemes encourages the adoption of the English orthographic norms.
The user of the German special language uses many hybrid constructions, e.g. Beauty-Bereich, Hospitality-Industrie, Designhotel.
In the case of compounds the following factors define whether the language user writes them separately, uses the hyphenated form, or writes it as one word:
- the number of components
- the grammatical category of the anterior constituent
- the length of the anterior constituent
- the origin of the components and the degree of their assimilation,
e.g. Roomservice, Showküche, Budgethotel, Message-Transfer, Assessment Center, Revenue Management.
Despite all this, there is a high level of orthographic uncertainty. The author is of the opinion that the variants that are written separately, are hyphenated, or are written as one word, are constantly moving. Tendencies can be recognized, but none of the forms can be regarded as a norm. The three ways of writing can rather be imagined in a continuum-model, e.g.:
Table 1: An Overview of the Ways of Writing of the New German Two-Part Compounds with a Two-Syllable Anterior Constituent
The Variant Written Separately
The Hyphenated Variant
The Variant Written as One Word
Account Management 11
Business Center 123
Business Travel 7
Dining Room 10
Leisure Traveller 3
Branchen News 0
City Resort 0
Design Hotel 26
Hotel Management 14
Hotel -Management 27
Leisure Bereich 0
The anglicism can even be built into the German syntactic system, e.g.: Einzigartigkeit schlägt Employability. Fakt ist, die noch große und wichtige Kundengruppe der wealthy, healthy, elderly people stirbt für uns mit hoher Geschwindigkeit aus.
The following statements can be made on the basis of the study carried out at the lexico-semantic level:
Experts compensate many marking insufficiencies by using the necessary neologisms in the hotel trade. According to the proportions of anglicisms present in the corpus a thematic system is taking shape: Anglo-Saxon realia, e.g. Donuts, Full American Breakfast; economic, hotel trade, and qualitative terms and norms, e.g.: Benchmarking, Yield-Management; modern hotel technologies, procedures and modern names for IT equipment and medical treatments, e.g.: Mystery Men Checks, High-End-Schlafsystem; the traditional job titles, working processes and functions that are common in the Anglo-Saxon type of hotel structure, e.g.: Chief Executive Officer, Night Auditor, Technology-Butler.
The stylistic neologisms stand side by side with the existing German lexemes as a kind of competing variant. These neologisms are usually short and to the point, e.g.: Look, Flop; they carry an extra meaning in their referents or connotations, e.g.: Lounge, Event, or they can function well as synonyms, e.g.: Marke > Brand, Trinkgeld > Tip, Reisemanagement > Travel Management. The reasons for their appearance can be as follows:
- They belong to a marketing activity, e.g.: Location, Marketingtool.
- They were borrowed in a narrower meaning, e.g.: Double-Treatment, Win-win-Deal, Superior Room.
- They are used adjacent to English proper names, e.g.: International Facility Management Association. The language user tends to use other equivalents of English origin under the influence English proper names, brand names, job titles, and other English common words, e.g. :
Die Tischlampe »Spun 1« im Sixties-Stil ist ein aktueller Entwurf von Sebastian Wrong für die Marke Flos, New York, und wurde als erste Charge speziell für die Gästezimmer des Mitglieds der design hotels hergestellt. Tophotel 3/2004, S. 131
Große Segel öffnen das Entree; in der fast 400 qm umfassenden Empfangshalle offenbart sich eine Space-Look-Atmosphäre mit Flatscreenwand und einer in UFO-Form gestalteten Entertainment-Bar (40 Plätze). Tophotel 3/2004, S. 134
The reasons add up in several cases.
In this part of my paper I project the findings of the study of the German base corpus onto the Hungarian and Russian target corpora.
I can make the following statements on the basis of the study carried out at the morpho-syntactic level for the German-Hungarian pair:
The breakdown of neologisms by grammatical category95% nouns (German), 92% nouns (Hungarianproves the thesis of nominalization that is typical of special languages.
In the German special corpus the compounds that are written in one word and the compounds that are hyphenated are predominant, while in the Hungarian corpus the compounds that are written separately are predominant, e.g.: das Economy-Hoteleconomy szálloda, das Franchise-Geschäftfranchise ügylet, der High tech-Anspruchhigh tech igény, die Incentive-Programmeincentive programok.
A movement can be observed between the collocations equivalent to lexemes and compounds in the German language use, e.g. das Club Hotel / Clubhotelklub hotel / klubhotel, der Room Service / Roomserviceroom service / roomservice, der Brand Manager / Brandmanagerbrand menedzser / brandmenedzser. These two-part compounds of English origin that are either written in one word or are hyphenated account for the increase in the proportion of compounds in the Hungarian special language. If the newcomer Anglo-neologism is expanded by such an anterior or posterior constituent that has already been domesticated in the Hungarian language, hybrid forms appear in the Hungarian language, too. They are responsible for the increase in the proportion of compounds in Hungarian, e.g.: der Beauty-Bereichbeautyrészleg, das Designhoteldesignhotel, der Bowlingsaalbowlingterem, die Spaweltspavilág.
The three-part compounds that are equivalent to lexemes , and in most cases also to technical terms, preserve their English way of writing , they are written separately in Hungarian similarly to German, e.g.: das Gross Operating Profitgross operating profit, das Total Quality Managementtotal quality management, der Key Account Managerkey account manager (but not: menedzser).
As opposed to the German use, the formation of new attributive constructions can be observed in Hungarian, e.g.: das Continental Breakfastkontinentális reggeli, der Operational Leaderüzemeltetési igazgató.
The incorporation of anglicisms into the Hungarian syntactic system is not typical.
The following statements can be made on the basis of the study conducted at the lexico-semantic level between German and Hungarian:
In the case of Anglo-Saxon realia and economic terms the Hungarian language user preserves the original names similarly to the German language user, e.g.: die Muffinsmuffinok, das Bowlingbowling, das Front-Officefront office, die Guest Relationsguest relations
The new variants formed in the receiving language are present side by side with the English names of modern hotel and IT equipment, wellness treatments, methods, job titles, positions, functions that are typical of the hotel trade, e.g.: der Flatscreenflatscreen / síkképernyő, der Touchscreentouchscreen / érintőképernyő, der Sales Managersales manager / értékesítési igazgató, der Housekeeperhousekeeping vezető / emeleti gondnok.
When the lexemes carry an additional meaning in their referents, the English variants appear in Hungarian similarly to German, e.g., der Boomboom, die Outdoor-Programmeoutdoor programok.
The Anglo-neologisms that have an additional connotative meaning are not typical of the Hungarian special language as opposed to the German one; they can be regarded neither as synonyms nor as competing variants. The stylistic neologisms that occur in the German special press are present in Hungarian in the spoken language, e.g.: fíling, lájtos, dizájnos.
Due to the globalised nature of the branch, the Hungarian hotel trade expert uses as many proper names as his/her German counterpart, but their presence does not imply the increased use of stylistic neologisms.
The following statements can be made on the basis of the examinations conducted at the morpho-syntactic level for the German-Russian pair:
The breakdown of neologisms by grammatical category95% - nouns (German), 86.4%nouns (Russian)proves the thesis of nominalization that is typical of special languages. If the newcomer Anglo-neologism is expanded by such an anterior or posterior constituent that has already been domesticated in the Hungarian language, hybrid forms appear in the Russian language, too. They are responsible for the increase in the proportion of compounds in Russian, e.g. das Back-Officeбэк-офис, die Event-Agenturevent-агентство.
The immediate assimilation as opposed to the German language is shown not by the capitalization of the word, but by its incorporation into the Russian phonemic system, the phonetic transcription, e.g.: die Travel Industry, das Time-outтревел-чек, тайм оут.
The recognition of the singular and plural forms of Anglo-neologisms takes place very quickly due to the morphological similarities between English and German. However, in the Russian language hesitation can be observed, e.g.: das Know-howсобственные ноу-хоу / своё ноу-хоу, die Chipsчипсы.
In the German special corpus, compounds are predominant, while in the Russian corpus attributive constructions, possessive constructions and predicative adjectives that function as collocations equivalent to lexemes are predominant, e.g.: die Catering-Firmaкейтеринговая компания, das Budget-Hotelбюджетная гостиница, die Online-Buchungонлайновое бронирование, die Marketingkommunikationмаркетинговая коммуникация, der Bachelor-Abschlussстепень бакалавра, das Dienstleistungspackageпакет услуг, das All-Day-Dining-Konzeptконцепция all day dining, der Fast-Food-Marktрынок фаст-фуд, der Beautybereichзона бьюти.
The incorporation of anglicisms into the Russian syntactic system is not typical.
The following statements can be made on the basis of the studies conducted at the lexico-semantic level for the German-Russian pair:
The complete preservation of the English variants of Anglo-Saxon realia can be observed in the Russian special press, e.g.: das Bowlingбоулинг, der Branchбранч.
The variants formed in Russian are present side by side with the borrowed English economic terms, e.g.: das Total Quality ManagemenTotal Quality Management / Всеобщее Управление Качеством, das Cateringкейтеринг / выездное обслуживание.
In the case of the names of modern hotel and IT equipment, wellness treatments, methods, job titles, functions, positions typical of the accommodation trade, the variants formed in the receiving tongue are used, e.g.,das Anti-Agingантивозрастная косметика, der Flatscreenплоский экран, die Key-Card-Systemeмагнитные замки, der Touchscreenсенсорный экран, das Body-Treatmentпроцедуры по уходу за кожей лица и тела, der Chief Executive Officerисполнительный директор, der Sales Manager директор по продажам.
The stylistic Anglo-neologisms that carry a referential-connotative additional meaning do not show such a differentiated stratification as in the German language. They can be regarded neither as synonyms nor as competing variants in the special context examined. The stylistic neologisms that appear in the German special press can only be found in the written genres that have a lower degree of abstraction or in the spoken language in Russian, e.g.: апгрейдить, сникерснуть.
5. The Verification of the Hypotheses
The German hotel trade special language is more susceptible to English borrowingsas compared to Russian and Hungarian [...] because English and German are structurally closer to each other than English and Russian or English and Hungarian.
The English loanword with the capitalization and the formation of gender in the German language is immediately incorporated into the German linguistic system, while incorporations into the Hungarian and the Russian phonemic systems and the phonetic transcriptions take a longer time. The recognition of the singular and plural forms of Anglo-neologisms takes place quickly due to the morphological similarities, but in Russian hesitation can be observed.
Many hybrid formsconsisting of English and receiving-language elementscan be found in the German special press. Hybrid constructions can also be found in the Hungarian and Russian corpora, but it can be stated that the Hungarian and the Russian special languages are less open to hybrid forms.
In the case of the German language, the English elements can sometimes be incorporated not only into the syntagmatic, but also into the syntactic structure; practically a sentence started in German can also be finished in English among hotel trade experts even in the written genres.
Furthermore it can be observed in the case of interviews in English that after literally quoting the interviewee, contributors of Hungarian and Russian special journals consistently translate the statement into the receiving language. The Russian expert considers it reasonable to translate or paraphrase even English proper names in some places. The German language user works on the assumption that his/her target group automatically understands the quotation not only because of his/her knowledge of English, but because of the operation of the perceptive and conclusive mechanisms originating from the similarities of the linguistic systems.
There has been a shift towards compound words in the Russian and Hungarian economichotel trade special press.
In the German special pressas it could be hypothesized at the beginning of the researchcompounds written in one word and hyphenated compounds are common, while in the Hungarian corpus attributive constructions, and in the Russian corpus attributive and possessive constructions and predicative adjectives are predominant. Certain hyphenated, two-part hybrid compounds consisting of English and receiving-language (or previously domesticated) elements can be accounted for the increase in the proportion of compounds in the Hungarian and in the Russian special languages.
The way of writing of compoundswhether they are written separately, in a hyphenated form or in one wordis determined by the number of components, the grammatical category of the anterior constituent, the origin of the components, and the degree of assimilation of the components.
The formation of inner neologisms as an alternative to external neologisms is more active, their use is more frequent in the Russian and Hungarian economichotel trade special languages than in the German language.
The user of the German special language clearly decides in favor of an English loanword in the case of Anglo-neologisms that compensate the marking insufficiencies, that is, in the case of Anglo-Saxon realia, economichotel trade norms, terms, modern hotel and IT equipment, medical and wellness treatments, job titles, positions, functions typical of the hotel trade. The Hungarian language user preserves the English variant in the case of realia and economic terms. In the case of technical equipment, job titles, and functions, the English words are used side by side with the words formed in the receiving language. In the Russian special press the complete preservation of the English language variants of Anglo-Saxon realia can be observed. In the case of economic terms the variants formed in the receiving language are present at the same time with the English variants, furthermore in the case of technical equipment and job titles only the receiving-language variants are used.
The stylistic Anglo-neologisms that carry a referential-connotative additional meaning do not show such a differentiated stratification as in the German language. They can be regarded neither as synonyms nor as competing variants in the special context examined. The stylistic neologisms that appear in the German special press can only be found in the written genres that have a lower degree of abstraction or in the spoken Hungarian and Russian languages.
Due to the global nature of the industry, the hotel trade expert uses many proper names. They can be the names of hotel chains, of new hotel complexes, the names of marketing concepts, the names of trade shows, the fantasy names of new products and services, etc. Their appearance is justified, but the use of further stylistic neologisms or even occasionalisms of English origin is implied by their influence on the special language context that is mainly attributable to their morphological similarities. The Hungarian and the Russian experts encounter as many proper names as the German expert, but their appearance does not involve the increased use of stylistic Anglo-neologisms.
All in all, Hungarian and Russian users of the special language as compared to German users, are more willing to find the equivalents of the English elements flowing into the language, or to use the equivalents side by side the English variant.
- The author has built three hotel trade special language corpora, each consisting of more than one million words.
- The author has reconciled the word-formation categories in each language, and has described the new foreign word-building tendencies.
- This researchon the basis of a study conducted by a computer-assisted concordancerreveals the similarities and the differences between the scenes of language use.
- After conducting studies at the morpho-syntactic and lexico-semantic levels, such methods are presented that can be used for the examination of further professional language texts.
7. Opportunities for further research
Due to the size of the corpus there is a new opportunity for exploring other new tendencies not only with respect to Anglo-neologisms. With the help of a comprehensive, comparative study, the neologisms of non-English origin could also be surveyed on the basis of the same principles.
The analysis carried out at the lexico-semantic level could open a new chapter in the fields of terminology and semantics. The relations of subordination, co-ordination, and superordination of new terms of English origin could be observed; furthermore, their expansions by a further sememe or sememes could also be explored in the German, Hungarian, and Russian contexts.
A third direction of research could direct the researchers' attention towards translation studies. The possible methods and mechanisms of attempts made at translating Anglo-neologisms could be outlined.
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