Volume 17, No. 2 
April 2013

  Soledad Sta. María


Front Page

Select one of the previous 63 issues.


Index 1997-2013

TJ Interactive: Translation Journal Blog

  Translator Profiles
Have Language, Will Travel
by Robert Ewing Finnegan

  The Profession
The Bottom Line
by Fire Ant and Worker Bee
Networking 101
byDanilo Nogueira and Kelli Semolini
Translation—an ageless profession
by Katia Spanakaki

  Translators and the Computer
The Ukrainian Cornucopia of Tools
by Jost Zetzsche

  Medical Translation
La historieta como instrumento para la divulgación médico-sanitaria: Aspectos pragmalingüísticos
Blanca Mayor Serrano

Translation and Politics
Trauma and Translation: Bearing Witness
by Fatima Sakarya and Sidney Shaievitz
Soviet Censorship and Translation in Contemporary Ukraine and Russia
by Nataliya M. Rudnytska, PhD

Arts and Entertainment
When Correct Grammar is Wrong-ish—Grammaticality, Ungrammaticality, and Usage-based Theory in Film Subtitles
by D. Bannon

Science and Technology
A Glossary of Olive Oil Taste Testing (Spanish-English and English-Spanish)
by Soledad Sta. María

Translator Education
How Approaches of Teaching English Can Be Used for Teaching Translation?
by Omid Jafari

  Caught in the Web
Web Surfing for Fun and Profit
by Cathy Flick, Ph.D.
Translators’ On-Line Resources
by Gabe Bokor
Translators’ Best Websites
by Gabe Bokor

  Translators' Tools
Translators’ Emporium

Call for Papers and Editorial Policies
  Translation Journal

A Glossary of Olive Oil Taste Testing*

(Spanish-English And English-Spanish)

by Soledad Sta. Maria


There is a considerable number of studies related to languages for specific purposes (LSP); however, there is dearth of studies focused on the terminology of olive oil tasting. Hence, in this study, the intention was to create a bilingual (English and Spanish) glossary of olive oil tasting in order to help those interested parties, especially translators and interpreters, by providing them with a tool for them to realize their objectives. Some problems and difficulties encountered during the process of translation had been also mentioned because its identification and subsequent solutions might help others. These problems can be grammatical or semantic inequivalence, primarily due to a number of non-equivalent terms in the target language (TL) and source language (SL), and cultural issues such as terms that have no equivalent in either in SL or TL, among others.


Language for Specific Purposes, Olive Oil Tasting, Problems and Solutions in Translating Specialized Terms, Bilingual Glossary, Terminology


his is a glossary for a special purpose and meant to meet the needs of experts, semi-experts, students, and any interested individual who needs a tool for speaking or writing, using terminology related to the field of olive oil taste testing. The bilingual glossary has been complied because Translation, being an applied science, is dedicated to solving practical problems—problems that are seen by society as being important—the key word is for. As Chesterman (2000c) said, “Translation studies are for society, for translators and for international communicators.”

Translation, being an applied science, is dedicated to solving practical problems.
In the creation of our corpus, the size and the representativeness (Clear 1992, Kennedy 1998, Pearson 1998, Tognini-Bonelli 2001) were taken into account. The corpus (in English and Spanish) was collated between the months of June and July 2010. Various glossaries, dictionaries and published materials on olive oil tasting in existence were searched on the Internet by applying two types of searches as proposed by Austermühl (2001: 52): institutional and keyword searches and by using search engines like Google and Yahoo. The following criteria were also considered to identify the terms in the corpus: the probability of comparisons and the frequency of occurrence of the term in the corpus (Méndez Cendón 2009). In order to facilitate the management of the co-occurrence of key terms, a concordance program called WordSmith Tools was used. It is a user-friendly software package that allows the generation of concordance and list of the words of a corpus by frequency of occurrence.

At the time of corpus creation, there were limited websites available and thus, olive oil taste testing terms were extracted from as many web pages (in both languages) found, and were chosen because they had similarities in terms and/or the dates of publication/creation (although not all websites indicated the date of publication). Due to constraints of available websites, time, as well as to meet the goal to have an authentic corpus (Laviosa 1998) with equal representation in both English and Spanish, in the end the texts from 24 websites (12 in Spanish and 12 in English) were chosen. The sources of the corpus can be seen in the bibliography but unfortunately, at this moment, some of them are no longer available on-line.

After going through the data collection, information and format conversion phases, during the glossary creation, the frequency of occurrence of the terms in English and Spanish corpuses were verified. There were 578 terms from the English corpus and 231 terms from the Spanish corpus. After looking at several term candidates, 92 terms in Spanish and 71 terms in English were included in the final specialized bilingual glossary. In addition, out of the combined 163 terms from both the Spanish and English corpuses, it was observed there were apparently 27 Spanish terms that coincide with the English terms. This means that it was necessary to look for the equivalence and/or translate 65 Spanish terms and 46 English terms or a total of 111 terms before defining them. In the end, there is a total of 254 terms in this glossary, where 133 of them are Spanish terms and 121 are English terms (see below for the list and the glossary with definitions in Spanish-English and English-Spanish, the terms that appear in italic refer to the undesirable traits and terms that appear in bold refer to the desirable traits of olive oil).

Some terms were not included in the final list because there are those that have two or more unrelated meanings (such as the term “sweet”, it was counted as one term although it has three entries) and those that have plural forms (for example, “green leaf” and “green leaves” were counted as one term but with separate entries in the glossary). Moreover, some general or scientific terms were also included because they appeared more than thrice and their definitions were also included in the corpus. Examples of these terms werecapacho, agrio, sweet, ácido oleico, polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others. The works of Ilson (1986b:F3), Hanks (1987 in Sinclair 1987b: 116-136), Sinclair (1987a: xvi), and Pearson (1998:88), as well as ISO 1087 (1990) recommendation about formulating definitions were taken into account to formulate the definition of terms.

As expected, some difficulties and problems were encountered during the creation of the specialized glossary and they could be classified as follows: inequivalence of terms which could either be semantic (existence of one term in the SL, which has two or more equivalent terms in the TL or vice versa, or need for explanation in the TL), or grammatical problems due to cultural issues (which could either be terms that don’t originate in the SL, terms in the TL that are not from English or Spanish, or terms that have no equivalents in the TL) and inequivalence of concepts.

To solve these issues, ample researchwas performed and documentation was prepared, and important decisions were made. For example, to address the issue of semantic inequivalence of terms, the Spanish term was used in English for the second meaning expressed by the entry term. At times, two or three entries appeared in the glossary or, when both terms exist but they do not share the same concept, different terms were chosen as equivalent. If one term exists in the SL but two or more in the TL or vice versa, those terms are treated as synonyms. If there are two terms that are grammatically inequivalent but they share the same meaning, they were entered as equivalent in the glossary. To solve problems due to cultural issues, reference was made to other languages (such as Italian, French, and Latin), and sometimes the term was used as is, without any translation but giving a definition in English or in Spanish or from previous editions of English or Spanish Dictionaries. As for the existence of concept inequivalence for either the Spanish or English term or both, that is, for terms that exist in the corpus but they have different meanings, it was decided to have two entries of the same term in the glossary. Furthermore, there are terms in the glossary that were not translated into the target language; these were Spanish terms that made reference to the different olive varieties such as arbequina, cornicabra, empeltre, farga, hojiblanca, lechín, picual, and picudo. Additionally, some general or scientific terms were included in this specialized glossary because they appeared more than three times and their definitions were also in the corpus. Examples of these terms are capacho, agrio, sweeet, ácido oleico, polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others.

It was observed that more difficulties were encountered in looking for equivalent terms from Spanish to English than from English to Spanish. The focus was to look for terminological adequacy - “attempts to preserve the appropriate stylistic resources of the target language (Abdulla 1994:70).” In most cases, during the process of translation of terms, the translation process suggested by Fernandez Nistal (2009) was followed. That is, attempts were done “to establish the equivalence between the source language texts and target language texts (Sa'edi 2004:242).”

It is recommended that in the future, this static glossary be converted into an “open” and “dynamic” corpus and that it be converted into an electronic online glossary with all its formal properties because the interest in olive oil taste testing continues to grow and it needs to be updated constantly. It is proposed that the glossary also include phraseology and be available in other languages like French, Italian and Chinese because France and Italy are deeply involved in the production and marketing of olive oil, while the Chinese economy is gaining importance in the global market.

Spanish-English Glossary

English-Spanish Glossary


Abdulla, A.K. (1994). “The translation of style.” In de Beaugrande, R. et al (eds.),Language, discourse and translation in the West and Middle East. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing House.

About the Ho use.18 March 2009. “Olive Oil Facts.”. Retrieved from: http://jeremytaylorshow.com/?p=20 (17 July 2010, no longer available online)

Aceites Sabor Sur S.L. no date. “Glosario Técnico.” Retrieved from:http://www.aceites-saborsur.es/es/glosario.html (17 June 2010)

Austermühl, Frank. 2001. Electronic Tools for Translators. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing

Ayuntamiento de Mora. No date. “El olivo, la aceituna y el aceite.” Retrieved from: http://usuarios.iponet.es/mora/olivo.htm#glosario (19 June 2010)

Azienda Agricola Petrosino Sabato. 2009. “Oil vocabulary.” Retrieved from: http://www.petrosinosabato.com/HomeMenuEnglish/Products/Oliveoil/Oilvocabulary/tabid/566/Default.aspx (20 June 2010, no longer available online)

Blanquez Fraile, Agustín.1985. Diccionario Latino-Español, Español-Latino Tomo I. Barcelona: Ramón Sopena, S.A.

Bongust Producciones SL.1998-2007. “Diccionario del aceite de oliva.” Retrieved from:http://www.afuegolento.com/secciones/aceite/oliva4.html (17 June 2010)

Cambridge University Press. 2010. Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Retrieved from:http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

California Olive Ranch. 2010. “Tasting Terms: Sensory Assessment of Olive Oils.” Retrieved from: http://www.californiaoliveranch.com/Libraries/COR_Documents_-_pdfs/HowToTasteOliveOil.sflb.ashx (17 June 2010, no longer available)

California Olive Ranch. 2010. “Tasting Olive Oil”. Retrieved from:http://www.californiaoliveranch.com/our-olive-oil/tasting-olive-oil (17 June 2010)

Cerespain S.L. 2001. “La Cata.” Retrieved from:http://www.cerespain.com/lacatayelaceitedeoliva.html (14 June 2010)

Chesterman, A. 2000c. “What constitutes ´progress´ in Translation Studies?”. In Birgitta Englund Dimitrova (ed.),Översättning och tolkning. Rapport från ASLA: höstsymposium, Stockholm, 5-6 november 1998. Uppsala: ASLA, 33-49. http://www.helsinki.fi/~chesterm/2000cProgress.html (7 November 2009).

Diccionario Ilustrado Vox/ Latino-Español/ Español-Latino. 1989. Diccionario Ilustrado Vox/ Latino-Español/ Español-Latino. Barcelona: Biblograf S.A.

Ediciones El País, S.L. 2010. Diccionarios. Retrieved from:http://www.elpais.com/diccionarios/

El Rincón del Vago. No date. “Vocabulario específico para el aceite de oliva.” Retrieved from:http://html.rincondelvago.com/aceite-de-oliva_3.html (consulted 21 July 2010)

Electronical Technical Transfer Olive Oil Network. 2010. “Olive Oil Glossary”. Retrieved from:http://www.e-toon.net/Doc/Olive%20Oil%20Glossary.pdf (18 August 2010, no longer available online)

Fernández Nistal, Purificación. 2009.Fuentes Lexicografías y Terminológicas para Traductores: Criterios de Análisis y Evaluación. Unpublished lecture notes. Valladolid: University of Valladolid.

Guia Miguelin. No date. “Glosario”. Retrieved from:http://www.guiamiguelin.com/aceite/glosario.html (17 June 2010)

Hanks, Patrick. 1987. “Definitions and Explanations.” John M. Sinclair (ed.) (1987b).Looking Up: an Account of the COBUILD Project in Lexical Computing. London: Collins. , 116-136.

Hispanic Searching, S.L. No date. “Diccionario del aceite de oliva.” Retrieved from:

Hornby, Albert Sydney and Anthony Paul Cowie (1989). Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 4th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ilson Robert. 1986b. “Towards a Taxonomy of Dictionary Definitions.” Polygot 7, F1-F4.

International Olive Council or IOC. 2007. Sensory Analysis of Olive Oil. Standard Sensory Analysis: General Basic Vocabulary. Retrieved from: http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/downloads/orga1.pdf (5 June 2010).

ISO/1087. 1990. Terminology -Vocabulary, International Organization for Standardization.

Italy Store. No date. “Glossary of Olive Oil”. Retrieved from:http://www.italystore.com/olio/eng/oliobiologico.html (15 June 2010)

Laviosa, Sara. 1998. “The corpus-based approach: a new paradigm in translation studies”. META, XLIII, 4, 1998. Manchester, UK: UMIST. Retrieved from: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/1998/v43/n4/003424ar.html (13 August 2010)

Lifestyle Direct, Inc. November 2005, updated on June 2009. “Olive Oil & Olives Glossary”. The Nibble. Retrieved from:http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/oils/olive-oil-glossary.asp (15 July 2010)

Lifestyle Direct, Inc. November 2005, updated on May 2007. “Desirable and Undesirable Flavours/Aromas (The Flavors & Aromas of Olive Oil).” The Nibble. Retrieved from: http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/oils/olive-oil-flavors.asp#chart (15 July 2010)

Los Molinos de Sipan. No date. “Diccionario de Cata del Aceite.” Retrieved from: http://www.losmolinosdesipan.com/diccionario.htm (17 June 2010)

Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2010. Dictionary and Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Online. On line at:http://www.merriam-webster.com/

Méndez Cendón, Beatriz. 2009. La Fraseología Médica: Pautas para su Estudio Análisis. Unpublished lecture notes. Valladolid: University of Valladolid.

Miguel, Raimundo de. 2000. Nuevo Diccionario Latino-Español Etimológico. Madrid: Visor Libros.

Molí del a Vall Major SL. 2005-2010. “Aceite Virgen Extra.” Retrieved from: http://www.molidelavallmajor.es/es/la-empresa/vocabulario-para-el-aceite-de-oliva?set_language=es (18 July 2010)

Niermeyer, Jan Frederik and C. Van de Kieft. 1976.Mediae latinitatis lexicon minus. Lexique latin médieval-français-anglais. A Medieval Latin-French-English dictionary, compiled by Leiden: Brill. Retrieved from: http://books.google.es/books?id=dLU3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA435&dq=fisculum+latin&hl=es&ei=mPxzTPPEO8-TjAeFj9yFCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=fisculum&f=false (20 August 010).

Olife, S.A. No date. “Oil Dictionary.” Retrieved from:http://www.olife.es/trespuertasviejo/ingles/datos5.htm (17 August 2010)

Olive & Olives. 2009. “Glossary”. Retrieved from:http://www.oliveolives.com/en/flair/glossary.html (18 June 2010)

Olive Oil Source. 1997-2010a. “Olictionary™ is a glossary of olive oil terms.” Retrieved from: http://www.oliveoilsource.com/definitions (17 June 2010)

Oxford University Press. 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved from: http://oxforddictionaries.com/

Pearson Education. 2010. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Retrieved from:http://www.ldoceonline.com/

Pearson, Jennifer (1998). Terms in Context: Studies in Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Porter, Noah. 1913. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828). Springfield, Mass.: C. & G. Merriam Co. in ARTFL (American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language) Project. Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved from: http://machaut.uchicago.edu/?resource=Webster%27s&word=dreggish&use1913=on&use1828=on (22 August 2010)

Puy Costa, Mariano. 1966. Diccionario moderno francés: francés-español, español-francés. Berlin, Munich: Langenscheidt KG

Quicherat, Louis-Marie. 1862. Addenda Lexicis Latinis: Investigavit, Collegit, Digessit. Paris: L. Hachette et Socios. Retrieved from: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011548945 (20 August 2010)

Real Academia Española. 2001. Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Vigésima segunda edición. Madrid: Real Academia Española.

Real Academia Española. 2005. Diccionario del estudiante. Barcelona: Santillana Ediciones Generales, S.L.

Real Academia Española. 2010. Diccionario de la Lengua Española - Vigésima segunda edición. http://www.rae.es/rae.html

Sabor Artesano. No date. “Diccionario de la cata del aceite de oliva.” Retrieved from:http://www.sabor-artesano.com/diccionario-cata-aceite.htm (17 June 2010)

Sa'edi, Kazem. 2004. An introduction to the principles and methodology of translation. Tehran: University Centre Publications.

Sánchez Gómez, Antonio Higinio, García García, Pedro & Luis Rejano Navarro. 2006. “Elaboration of table olives.” Grasas y Aceites, 57 (1), Enero-Marzo, 86-94, 2006. http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/2453/1/Elaboration.pdf (16 August 2010)

Segura Munguía, Santiago. 1985: Diccionario etimológico latino-español. Madrid, Ediciones Generales Anaya.

Sinclair, John M. (ed.) 1987a. Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London: Harper Collins.

Sinclair, John M (ed.) (1987b). Looking Up: an Account of the COBUILD Project in Lexical Computing. London: Collins.

Smith, William. 1855. Latin-English Dictionary; Based upon the works of Forcellini and Freund. London: John Murray Albermarle Street.Retrieved from: http://books.google.es/books?id=pakCAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Latin-ENGLISH+Dictionary&hl=es&ei=7fpzTPGDGY7KjAfUtOGGCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false (19 August 2010)

Sociedad Rectora del Mercado de Futuros del Aceite de Oliva, S.A or MFAO (no date). MFAO Glossary. Retrieved from: http://www.mfao.es/generales/glosario.asp (18 July 2010)

Sociedad Rectora del Mercado de Futuros del Aceite de Oliva, S.A or MFAO (no date). “Glosario MFAO”. Retrieved from:http://www.mfao.es/generales/glosario.asp?Id=1 (14 June 2010)

The Olive Oil Source. 1997-2010a. “Olictionary™ is a glossary of olive oil terms”. Retrieved from:http://www.oliveoilsource.com/definitions (20 June 2010)

The Olive Oil Times staff. 5 April 2010. “Olive Oil Glossary”. Retrieved from: http://www.oliveoiltimes.com/olive-oil-basics/olive-oil-glossary/terms/2358 (15 July 2010)

The Olive Oil Times staff. 1 March 2010). “ Glossary of Olive Oil Tasting Terms ”. Retrieved from: http://www.oliveoiltimes.com/olive-oil-basics/glossary-of-olive-oil-tasting-terms (15 July 2010)

Tognini-Bonelli, Elena. 2001. Corpus Linguistics at Work. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins.

Velazquez de la Cadena, Mariano, Edward Gray & Juan Iribas. 1994.Gran diccionario bilingüe: español-inglés/ inglés-español. Mexico: Prentice Hall Hispanoamerica, S.A.

VV. AA. 2000. Larouse Gran Diccionario Español/Inglés – English/Spanish. Mexico: Larouse Editorial S.A.

VV. AA. 2006. Diccionario de uso del español actual (octava edición). Madrid: Grupo Editorial SM Internacional.

WordSmith Tools version. Retrieved from: http://lexically.net/wordsmith/version5/index.html (01 August 2010).